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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.56 No.3 pp.57-65
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2022.56.3.57


A Study on the Distribution and Damage of Boring Insect Pests in Chestnut Orchard

Seung-In Lee1, Man-Leung Ha1, Sang-Gon Lee1, Hyun Kim2, Chong-Kyu Lee2*
1Graduate student, Department of Forest Resources, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52725, Republic of Korea
2Professor, Division of Environmental and Forest Science College of Agriculture and Life Science, Jinju 52725, Republic of Korea
* Corresponding author: Chong-Kyu Lee (Tel) +82-55-772-3243 (E-mail) suam7@suam7@gnu.ac.kr
June 16, 2022 ; June 22, 2022 ; June 22, 2022

Abstract


This study was conducted to provide basic data on controlling boring insect pests by identifying the damage and the occurrence ecology of beetles, which are boring insect pests that seriously damage Castanea crenata, an income tree of mountain farms. By location, the damage rate was 62.5% at the foot of mountain, 61.4% at the mountain range, and 61.3% at the mountain peak. By region, the damage rate was the highest in Hapcheon at 65.3%, followed by 62.5% at Hadong and 58.1% at Jinju. The total number of adult fables was 171, followed by 49.1% (84) for Moechotypa diphysis, 39.2% (67) for Batocera lineolata, and 11.7% (20) for Anoplophora malasiaca. As for the male and female ratio of imago, Moechotypa diphysis had 51.2% (43) female and 48.4% (41) male. The percentage of emergence of beetles, which are boring insect pests appearing in the specimen collected by the survey area, was 46.0% in Hapcheon, 32.9% in Hadong, and 21.1% in Jinju.



As for the prevalence of beetles, Batocera lineolata appeared from June 22 which is the first day of the emergence period to August 30, and the amount of emergence by the prevalence period was 3.0% in June, 46.2% in July, and 47.8% in August. Anoplophora malasiaca appeared from May 20 to July 20, and the amount of emergence by prevalence period was 5.0% in May, 10.0% in June, and 75.0% in July. Moechotypa diphysis first appeared from August 10 to September 30, and the amount of emergence by prevalence period was 1.2% in July, 51.2% in August, and 46.4% in September. As for the number of eggs laid by beetles, Anoplophora malasiaca laid 90±6, Batocera lineolate laid 75±5, and Moechotypa diphysis laid 60±6.



초록


    Introduction

    About 12 species of C. crenata inhabit temperate regions such as Asia, Europe, and North America, and both C. crenata and Castanea bungeana have been cultivated in Korea since the ancient times. Since C. crenata adapts quickly to the atmosphere and soil of Korea and is rich in nutritional value, they are classified as health foods in Korean traditional medicine as well as hardy plants, favorite foods, and necessary foods in daily life, and are used as important fruits for ancestral worships in traditional ceremonial occasions. C. crenata with such beautiful and fine custom that has continued to the present are the major fruit trees planted in the mountains, distributed in temperate areas including Korea with an annual average temperature of about 12℃. Among them, there are 5 main species of C. crenatas that are used for food are in South Korea, Japan, China, Europe, and the United States. C. crenata, which has a large fruit, rich in fruit, and has a huge yield, as well as Castanea bungeana, which has a relatively small fruit but rich in sweetness and has inner shells that easily peel off, have been cultivated in South Korea (Park et al. 2005).

    Insect pests that inflict C. crenata were first discovered in Jecheon 1958, when a large population of hump bees that inflict the shoots and inhibit the fruiting of C. crenata, causing severe damage to the forest physiognomy of C. crenata. However, this study tested insect resistance and selected varieties among the C. crenata introduced from Japan, so the variety of C. crenata has been fixed and only afforestation took place, becoming a forest-income species from 1968 (KRDA, 1991). Thus, studies have identified a total of 10 orders, 217 species of insect pests that cause damage to C. crenata, and more studies on C. crenata are in progress (Yi et al., 2003). In particular, pest control studies such as ecofriendly studies have been continuously conducted on Dichocrocis punctiferalis and Apoderus jekeli, which are insect pests that inflict C. crenata by reducing yield and income and damaging the seeds, (Lee et al., 1997;1998;1999).

    Although C. crenata contributed greatly income increase of farming villages by creating a large complex of insect-resistant varieties in 1968, it is also rapidly aging in recent years as it has been harvested for more than 50 years. In addition to aging, diseases and insect pests are damaging the trunk of C. crenata that has been neglected for care, due to the decreasing population in rural areas, urbanization, and difficulty in harvesting C. crenata. In particular, beetles, bark beetles, and rice weevils which are boring insects that directly damage the trunk, Endoclyta excrescens which are lepidoptera that damage the trunk, and Machaerotypus sibiricus of the Cicada that absorbs juice, etc. have been reported as major insect pests that damage the stem or branch of C. crenata (Kang et al., 1978;Choi, 1993;1998).

    These boring insect pests are classified as sporadic insect pests in pest control compared to the key insect pests which are Dichocrocis punctiferalis and Apoderus jekeli in C. crenata. Also, the damage of boring insect pests is increasing rapidly in C. crenata nationwide due to the aging of both the trees and the growers. Since the damage of these boring insect pests kills C. crenata, it affects the yield and rapidly decreases growers' income. Thus, this study was conducted to identify the damage and the prevalence ecology of beetles, which are boring insect pests that seriously damage C. crenata trunk, an income tree of mountain and rural farms, and provide basic data for the control of boring insect pests.

    Materials and Methods

    1. Selection of Research Sites and Overall Conditions

    This study selected three areas where C. crenata were planted and managed as a large cultivation complex in Gyeongnam as survey sites. These included: Obang-ri, Micheon-myeon, Jinju-si; Wolpyeong-ri, Hoengcheon-myeon, Hadong-gun; and Gahoe-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, and each of their locations was shown in Fig. 1. Table 1 shows the results of survey sites in the group cultivation areas of C.crenata selected to investigate boring insect pests.

    2. Research Method

    2.1 Survey of C. crenata Cultivation Sites

    This study investigated beetles, which are boring insect pests damaging the wood of C. crenata by boring the trunk at the selected survey sites, once a month from March 2019 to September 2020 in a total of 7 times a year for 2 years. This study divided the sites into three zones by the location of the collective C. crenata cultivation sites: mountain foot, hillside, and top, and randomly selected three 20 x 20 m survey zones each survey site. This study surveyed the age and density of C. crenata and the damage by beetles on the trunk, and calculated and compared the damage rates by location and area (KFS, 1991;KRDA, 1991). In particular, this study examined the leaves and stems of C. crenata for the direct damaged area with oviposition marks in the wood during the feeding period of beetles (Goo et al., 2008).

    2.2 Survey of Beetle Prevalence on C. crenata

    This study investigated the emergence period of beetles, which are boring insect pests that damage the sapwood and heartwood by piercing a hole in the trunk wood of aging C. crenata, at the selected survey sites. C. crenata with spawning balls of beetles was collected directly from the collective plantation and transferred to an indoor emergence site. As for the damaged trees in which beetles spawned eggs in the survey sites, a total of 45 (15 trees x 3 areas, 100cm in length) trees, 15 per survey area, were brought to the breeding room in early March before the emergence period. The sex ratio of female and male beetles was investigated by examining their number during the emergence period and on the day of, and the shape of imago was examined using calipers and stereomicroscope (SZX16, Olympus). In addition, the study observed the number of the eggs laid the period of spawned eggs and hatched larvae from the eggs, and the period to pupae from mature larvae and the subsequent emergence of imago (Goo et al., 2008). To analyze the shape of beetles emerged, the lengths of body and feelers were measured by the type of beetles after they emerged from the pupa to the imago and escaped through holes.

    3. Analysis of Survey Results

    This study compared the differences in the shape and measured numbers of eggs, larvae, and pupae of beetles, which are boring insect pests inflicting damage on the trunk of C. crenata. Thus, the measured survey results were analyzed using the statistical program IBM SPSS Statistics 9.1 to test statistical significance, and the significant difference was verified at a significance level of 5% (a <0.05) by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

    Results and Discussion

    1. Damage Rate by Boring Pests

    Tables 2 and 3 show the results of investigating damaged trees of beetles and calculating the damage rate according to the distribution of C. crenata plantations in the survey area. This study analyzed the rate of beetle damage on C. crenata by dividing the survey sites into the mountain foot, hillside, and the top of the C. crenata plantation. The results showed that 45 were damaged among 72 C. crenata on the mountain foot, and the damage rate was 62.5%. Next, 70 C. crenatas were identified at the hillside, of which 43 were damaged and the damage rate was 61.4%. Finally, 62 C. crenatas were identified at the mountain top, of which 38 were damaged and the damage rate was 61.3%. There was no statistically significant difference in the damage rate of beetles by location of C. crenata cultivation (Table 2). Thus, according to the results of this survey, the distribution of habitat by location had no significant effect for the beetles, which are boring insect pests. These results are similar to the report that beetles are distributed throughout the collective cultivation sites of C. crenata and damage them (Lee et al., 1997;1998;1999;Ha and Lee. 2016). In addition, boring insect pests make holes or discharge sap and wood fibers by digging holes in the trunk or branches of the host plant, damaging the lumber. Such damages may appear alone or in combination and make sap leaks from the fissures of the bark, form bulging and lumps, and release sawdust-like wood from small holes. Beetles are boring insect pests that damage C. crenata by cutting the trunk or creating a tree with tree holes, which seriously affects the fruiting and yield of C. crenata; thus, thorough surveillance and monitoring are required to prevent such damage. If boring insect pests are controlled during the emergence period by installing traps on the woody areas they inhabit, the damage is likely to be reduced in C. crenata farms. (Table 2)

    Moreover, this study examined the damage of beetles in the three collective cultivation sites of C. crenata, which were selected to investigate the distribution of beetles by area. First, a 20 x 20m quadrat was set at the survey site of C. crenata cultivation area in Micheon-myeon, Jinju-si, and 117 officially announced trees were investigated in 5 repetitions; among them, 68 were damaged and the damage rate was 58.1%. Next, a 20 x 20m quadrat was set at the survey site of C. crenata cultivation area in Hoengcheon-myeon, Hadong-gun, and 120 officially announced trees were analyzed in 5 repetitions; among them, 75 were damaged and the damage rate was 62.5%. Lastly, a 20 x 20m quadrat was set at the survey site of C. crenata cultivation area in Gahoe-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, and 118 officially announced trees were investigated in 5 repetitions; among them, 77 were damaged and the damage rate was 65.3%. As for the damage rate by area, Gahoe-myeon, Hapcheon-si were the highest at 65.3%, followed by Hadong, Hoengcheon at 62.5% and Micheon-myeon, Jinju-si at 58.1% as the lowest rate, confirming statistical significance (p<0.05). (Table 3) This result was similar to a study concluding that the distribution of beetles varied by area which was influenced by the plant. The study result on the collective cultivation sites of C. crenata is similar to the existing studies that there was a difference in the habitat distribution of Korean beetles by area and host (Saito, 1932;Jeong et al., 2005;Choi, 2006;Jang, 2008;Lee et al., 2010).

    The difference in the damage rate related to the beetle distribution by area is due to the following reasons. In Micheon are of Jinju, C. crenata cultivators managed the trees and prevented damages caused by beetles through crop dusting, applying paint on the trunk, and aviation-spraying pesticides more than twice, which were effective for reducing damage caused by beetles. On the other hand, the Gahoe area of Hapcheon, which had the most damage, depended only on crop dusting and control since the C. crenata growers were too aged. As the area where hybrids grow dense and thick around the cultivation area of C. crenata, Gahoe of Hapcheon had more suitable conditions for the beetles to grow than the Jinju and Hadong survey areas. Thus, the insufficient management is considered to have increased the damage rate of the, which requires the continuous management of the C. crenata collective cultivation site to remote the habitats of beetles and reduce the damage rate accordingly. Since South Korea has large-scale collective sites of C. crenata cultivation at about 60,000ha in Gyeongnam, Jeonnam, and Chungnam, it is necessary to conduct the sufficient management of C. crenata (KFS, 2006).

    2. Prevalence of Beetles

    It is difficult to tract the prevalence frequency and the accurate emergence period of beetles according to their emergence period in wild nature. Thus, the study examined the frequency of emergence prevalence in a more direct method by moving the officially announced trees with spawning beetle eggs into the breeding facility on the emergence space. Table 4 shows the number and prevalence frequency of beetles emerged among boring insect pests that appeared in 100cm-long C. crenata trees collected from the collective cultivation site. Three species appeared according to the research: Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis. This study also examined the number of emerged beetles and the date of emergence; a total of 171 beetles emerged, of which the most emerged was Moechotypa diphysis with imago prevalence frequency at 49.1% (84), followed by Batocera lineolata with the frequency of imago prevalence at 39.2% (57). The least hatched type was Anoplophora malasiaca, which appeared at a frequency of 11.7% (20 beetles). In short, Moechotypa diphysis and Batocera lineolata had a high frequency of prevalence, while Anoplophora malasiaca had a low prevalence. An existing study said that how C. crenata in its collective cultivation sites is managed can determine the emergence amount (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). This study also gathered many emerged beetles from officially announced trees in the uncontrolled areas of disease and insect pests (Table 4).

    The study examined the male and female ratios of imago from which three beetles were emerged as in Table 4. Moechotypa diphysis had 51.2% (43) females and 48.4% 41) males among 84 of them, showing that females had a higher percentage than males. By area, the ratio of females was higher than males in Jinju with 58.8% females and 41.2% males; the ratio of females and males was the same in Hadong at 50%, respectively, and the proportion of males was higher than females in Hapcheon with 48.6% and 51.4%, unlike other areas. Next, the proportion of female Batocera lineolata among 67 of them was 52.2% (35) and males were 47.8% (32), so the rate of female prevalence was higher than that of males. By area, Jinju had a higher proportion of females than males at 54.5. % and 45.5% each; Hadong also had a higher proportion of females than males at 53.8% and 46.2% respectively; and Hapcheon had the same proportion of females and males at 50%, respectively.

    The sex ratio in the prevalence of Anoplophora malasiaca was 50% (10 beetles) for females and males each, respectively. By area, Jinju had the same prevalence ratio of females and males at 50%, respectively; in Hadong, the ratios of females and males were 42.9% and 57.1%, with males having higher prevalence rates than females; and in Hapcheon, the prevalence ratio of females and males was 57.1% and 42.9%, making the ratio of males higher than that of females. The total number of three species of beetles appeared was 171 and the prevalence ratio of female and male was 51.5% (88) and 48.5% (83), respectively, but there was no significant difference in the ratio between females and males. These results are similar to a previous report claiming no significant difference in the prevalence ratio of males and females for beetles, and that the sex ratio of insects remains unchanged in the natural ecosystem (Saito, 1932;KFS, 1991). Although the prevalence of females is higher than males in unisexual insects, most beetle-family insects do not have a significant difference(p<0.05) in the female-male sex ratio. There was no significant difference in the ratio between males and females for the three beetles in this study, but females tended to appear more than males, which necessitates continuous monitoring and studies in the future (Fig. 2)

    Fig. 2 is the result of analyzing the number of 3 species of beetles emerged by surveying the officially announced trees collected from each area specimens collected from the survey sites. The area with the highest number of beetles appeared was Hapcheon at 46.0%, followed by 32.9% in Hadong, which was in the middle between Jinju and Hapcheon. The area with the lowest prevalence of beetles was Jinju at 21.1%, confirming statistical significance (p<0.05). First, the Jinju survey site had the least number of beetles emerged as the trees were well managed through pest and disease control, vegetation management, mowing, and tending operation, affecting beetle prevalence.

    Next, the Hadong survey area had the second lowest prevalence rate of beetles. This area conducted a relatively good control and management of boring insect pests on C. crenata forest lands with pesticides, by removing weeds and shrubs in the summer with an interest in the harvest of C. crenata in the fall. C. crenata in Hapcheon, which relied solely on the control of beetles by aviation-spraying, was judged to have not been properly managed due to the aging of C. crenata cultivators and the C. crenata trees; as a result, the prevalence rate of the beetles was very high. Overall, the emergence prevalence rate of beetles was the highest in the order of Hapcheon, Hadong, and Jinju, and the collective cultivation sites of C. crenata was well managed in the order of Jinju, Hadong, and Hapcheon.

    Fig. 3 shows the prevalence of three species beetles— Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis—and the results of emerged imago by season. After laying eggs and spawning on the trunk of C. crenata, the larva born from the eggs grew by damaging the tree, became a pupa, and emerged into imago from June. Next, Batocera lineolata started emergence from June 22 as the first day and appeared until August 30, and the emergence amount by prevalence period was 3.0% in June, 46.2% in July, 47.8% in August, and 3.0% in September so the emergence was at its peak with the highest amount in August. Anoplophora malasiaca emerged between May 20 and July 20, and the emergence amount by prevalence period was 5.0% in May, 10.0% in June, 75.0% in July, and 10.0% in August. Compared to Batocera lineolata and Moechotypa diphysis, Anoplophora malasiaca emerged from late May to late July, with the emergence peak in July. The emergence period of Moechotypa diphysis was later than Batocera lineolata and Anoplophora malasiaca, appearing on August 10 as the first day until September 30, and emergence by prevalence period was 1.2% in July, 51.2% in August, 46.4% in September, and 1.2% in October. Finally, the emergence period of Moechotypa diphysis was long with August being peak season of emergence for the greatest amount.

    3. Number of Eggs Laid

    Fig. 4 shows the results of examining the number of eggs laid on the spawning trees after the imago of Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis in the beetle family finished matured and mated. According to the results, Anoplophora malasiaca spawned 90±6 eggs, Batocera lineolata 75±5 eggs, and Moechotypa diphysis 60±6 eggs, which were similar to a study that found Anoplophora malasiaca spanwed about 30-120 eggs (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). It was reported that Batocera lineolata laid around 50 eggs in a previous study (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007) but 75±5 eggs in this study, which was a huge difference. The number of eggs laid is considered to be affected by the prevalence of Batocera lineolata once every two years, and beetles need continuous monitoring from now on. Among the types of beetles living on C. crenata, Moechotypa diphysis laid the fewest eggs (60±6), like the previous report (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). Thus, the number of eggs laid by beetle type was in the order of Anoplophora malasiaca > Batocera lineolate > Moechotypa diphysis.

    4. Shapes of Beetles

    Table 5 shows the results of this study. First, the female imago of Anoplophora malasiaca was bigger than the male as the body length was 35mm in females and 32mm in males. Also, the female imago of Batocera lineolata was bigger than the male as the body length was 54mm in females and 47mm in males, and the female imago of Moechotypa diphysis was bigger than the male as the body length was 23mm in females and 20mm in males. These results are similar to a study on Anoplophora malasiaca that the imago has a body length of 30-35mm with a glossy color and 15-16 white spots on the wings on a black background (KFS, 1991;Kim, 1998;KFRI, 2007). However, not many imagos emerged in this survey. Anoplophora malasiaca is characterized by circular gnawing, but does not have many of it inhabiting the C. crenata and was found to be damaging the lower part of trunk.

    The survey results of Batocera lineolata showed that its imago body was 50-60mm long in females and 40-50mm in males, had a dark brown color with grayish-yellow short hairs densely grown on the back, and had slightly long gray hairs in the lower part. This was similar to the result that Batocera lineolata imago had fine wrinkle-shaped stipplings on the head, large wrinkles on the prothorax back, rounded ends on the wings have rounded ends, and short thorns where the wings met (KFS, 1991;Kim, 1998;KFRI, 2007). In addition, although the damages of imago are not observed well with the naked eye since they are mainly on the sapwood and heartwood of trees, a relatively large number of imagos emerged in the officially announced trees collected from the cultivation area of C. crenata, supporting the accuracy of the survey.

    According to the survey of Moechotypa diphysis, the body length of imago was 16-27mm. Its color was black, and it had light reddish-brown fine hairs on the back, blackish brown fine hairs scattered between them, and white short bristles, bumps near the base of the back of the fore wing, and long black hairs growing densely on them; these are similar to the results of previous studies (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). The imago of Moechotypa diphysis emerged the most in this study (84), due to the aging of C. crenata in the collective cultivation area which caused a large number of trees to be damaged and killed around (Kim, 1998;Ha and Lee, 2016). Thus, it is necessary to establish support measures such as continuously managing the collective cultivation of C. crenata and providing more manpower to replace growers who are becoming older.

    In this study of Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis, the body length of imago is as follows. The males and females of Batocera lineolata were the longest at 54mm and 47mm, respectively, followed by Anoplophora malasiaca with females 35mm and males 32mm, respectively, and the males and females of Moechotypa diphysis were 23mm and 20mm each. The body length of imago was 7mm longer in females than males in Batocera lineolata, 3mm longre in Anoplophora malasiaca, and about 3mm longer in Moechotypa diphysis. Therefore, the size of imago in this study was in the order of Batocera lineolata> Anoplophora malasiaca> Moechotypa diphysis.

    Moreover, this study examined the antennae among the form of the imago of boring insect pests Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis in the collective cultivation sites of C. crenata in Micheon-myeon, Jinju-si, Hadong-myeon, Hoengcheon-si, and Gahoe-myeon, Hapcheon-si. According to the results, the antennae of Anoplophora malasiaca was longer in females at 42mm in length than males at 60mm. The antennae were 1.9 times the body length in males and 1.2 times the body length in females, and its length was 1.4 times longer in males than females. These results are similar to a study on Anoplophora malasiaca that the male's antennae are about twice as long as the body length and the female's antennae were 1.2 times the body length (KFS, 1991;Kim, 1998;KFRI, 2007); also, the imago had grayish white segment basal end in the antennae. Next, the antennae length of Batocera lineolata was 57mm in females and 72mm in males, so the males had longer antennae than females. However, males' antennae were measured to be 1.5 times the body length and females were measured to be 1.1 times the body length, and males' antennae were 1.3 times longer than females. These results support the previous study results that the male antennae are 1.5 times the length of the body of Batocera lineolate (KFS, 1991;KRDA, 1991;Kim, 1998;KFRI, 2007).

    The antennae length of Moechotypa diphysis was 22 mm in females and 22 mm in males, showing no difference in length by sex. In this study, male antennae were 1.1 times longer the body length, female antennae were 1.0 times longer body length, and the female and male antennae had the same length. This was somewhat different from the result that the length of male Moechotypa diphysis antennae was 1.2 times the body length (Kim, 1998;KFRI, 2007).

    As the C. crenata growers are aging and continuous management at cultivation sites is becoming more difficult, beetles are expected to increase further. Thus, it is necessary to establish the developmental ecology and form of beetles including Moechotypa diphysis in the group cultivation sites of C. crenata through continuous monitoring. The imago of Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis all had 10 antennal nodes, thus showing no significant difference among the beetles.

    5. Eggs, Larvae, and the Pupal Period of Beetles

    Table 6 shows the results of investigating the egg, larvae, and the pupal periods as well as the duration period after the prevalence of Anoplophora malasiaca, Batocera lineolata, and Moechotypa diphysis, which are boring insect pests that damage the trunk of C. crenata.

    First, this study investigated the egg, larvae, and pupal period for the beetles that damage the trunk of C. crenata and kill them in their group cultivation sites. The egg period was 12±2 days for Anoplophora malasiaca, which had the smallest population, 11±3 days for Moechotypa diphysis, and 9±3 days for Batocera lineolata. In this study, beetles that had the longest egg period were Anoplophora malasiaca, followed by Moechotypa diphysis and Batocera lineolata as the shortest egg period. Anoplophora malasiaca had 10-15 days of egg period, and a study said hatched larvae initially eat the tree underneath the shell but later eat deep in the woody part and rise upward while inflicting damage on it (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007).

    Egg period was 12±2 days in this previous report and this study, which were similar results.

    Moechotypa diphysis had an egg period of 8-13 days. A study reported that mature larvae continue to inflict damage on the tree until the beginning of August by irregularly gnawing below the bark and woody part (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). Egg period was 10±3 days in this report and this study, which were similar results. Batocera lineolata had an egg period of 7-10 days. A study reported that mature larvae continue to inflict damage until the beginning of August by irregularly gnawing below the bark and woody part (KFS, 1991;KFRI, 2007). Egg period was 10±3 days in this report and this study, which were similar results. Thus, the beetle type with the longest egg period was in the order of Anoplophora malasiaca> Moechotypa diphysis> Batocera lineolata.

    Next, the study examined larval period of the three beetles. The results showed that Anoplophora malasiaca had 200±10 days of larval period, Moechotypa diphysis 65±14 days, and Batocera lineolata 308±10 days. The larval period is 2 years and 1 generation which is 300-320 days, and literature was reviewed to examine the uninvestigated part during the survey period. This was similar to a report which said that the larval period of Anoplophora malasiaca was around 250 days and Moechotypa diphysis around days (KFS, 1991;KRDA, 1991). The pupal period of beetles was 24±5 days for Anoplophora malasiaca, 9±2 days for Moechotypa diphysis, and 29±7 days for Batocera lineolata. These results were similar to those of KFRI (2007) and KFS (1991), so the pupal period was the longest in the order of Batocera lineolate > Anoplophora malasiaca > Moechotypa diphysis.

    Figures

    JALS-56-3-57_F1.gif

    The location map of the survey sites.

    Note: A (JM) Jinju Micheon, B (HH) Hadong Hoengcheon, C (HG) Hapcheon Gahoe

    JALS-56-3-57_F2.gif

    Difference in adult prevalence rate of boring insect pests by survey sites.

    *Means with the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level for Duncan’s multiple range test

    JALS-56-3-57_F3.gif

    Seasonal occurrence of adult boring insect pests.

    JALS-56-3-57_F4.gif

    Number of oviposition of adult boring insect pests.

    *Means with the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level for Duncan’s multiple range test

    Tables

    The sample chestnut tree and orchard type of survey sites

    Chestnut tree damage rate of boring insect pests by plots

    Chestnut tree damage rate of boring insect pests by survey sites

    Frequency of adult emergence of boring insect pests (unit:number of adult)

    Adult form of boring insect pests

    Duration of egg, larva and pupa of boring insect pests (days±S.D)

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