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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.55 No.2 pp.83-87
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2020.55.2.83

First Report of Three Unrecorded Nematode Species (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) in Korea

Heon-Il Kang1, Hyoung-Rai Ko1, Jong-Min Seo2, So-Hee Park2, Young-Hoon Park3, Yong-Chul Kim2, In-Soo Choi2,4*
1Crop Protection Division, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, 55365, Korea
2Department of Plant Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang, 50463, Korea
3Department of Horticulture, Pusan National University, Miryang, 50463, Korea
4Nematode Research Center, Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang, 50463, Korea
*Corresponding author: In-Soo Choi Tel: +82-55-350-5692 Fax: +82-55-350-5509 E-mail: ichoi@pusan.ac.kr
November 3, 2020 ; March 24, 2021 ; April 26, 2021

Abstract


Free-living nematodes feed on bacteria, algae, fungi, dead organisms, and living tissues. They release nutrients for plant use and improve soil structure and water holding capacity. They are usually the most abundant type of nematodes in soil and marine environments. This study has been conducted to survey the distribution and identification of soil nematodes from rhizosphere soil of plant for investigation of indigenous species according to Convention on Biological Diversity. Three species of free-living nematodes belonging to the order of Dorylaimida were found from paddy soil and soybean fields, Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do and one species was found from soil, Dokdo island, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Eudorylaimus arcus and Mesodorylaimus spengelii are newly collected from Korea. A. obtusicaudatus can be recognized by its large body, short odontostyle being much thicker than cuticle at the same level, well developed gonads, shape and length of the tail. E. arcus is distinctive because of the wide lateral field, tail form and supplement arrangement. M. spengelii is smaller species with short odontostylet, simple guiding ring. Female tail more or less uniformly attenuated, tip is not swollen, nor curved dorsally.



초록


    Pusan National University(PNU)

    Introduction

    The phylum Nematoda is one of the most abundant invertebrate groups on Earth and a major component of worldwide biodiversity (Hugot et al., 2001). Nematodes have a different modes of life, such as free-living, parasitic (plant and animal), predatory, insect associates, entomopathogenic, terrestrial and aquatic (marine and freshwater) (Shah & Mahamood, 2017). Free-living nematodes are well known for their beneficial role in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    The order Dorylaimida is one of the most species-rich groups of free-living nematode. According to a recent census, it includes 253valid genera and 2,637valid species. These numbers are, of course, very far from final, since many new taxa continue to be detected and described every year (Andrássy, 2009). Dorylaimida is found a round the world, in all types of soils, in every conceivable type of habitat, and usually dominate both in numbers and in species over all other soil-inhabiting nematodes (Jairajpuri & Ahmad, 1992).

    During a survey of soil nematodes in Korea, an unreported on three species of free-living nematodes belonging to the order of Dorylaimida were found from paddy soil and soybean fields, Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do (latitude N35°30′. longitude E128°44′) and one species was found from soil, Dokdo island, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (latitude N37°14′. longitude E131°52′).

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and identification of soil nematodes in the rhizome soil of plants for the investigation of indigenous species according to the Biodiversity Convention.

    Materials and Methods

    Soil samples were collected from paddy field and soybean field Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do (latitude N35°30′. longitude E128°44′) and Dokdo island, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (latitude N37°14′. longitude E131°52′). Nematodes were extracted from soil by modified Baermann's funnel method. Extracted nematodes were fixed with 80℃ FG 4:1 fixative (Southey, 1986), transferred to glycerin according to the Seinhorst's rapid method (1959). For light microscopic observations, specimens were mounted on Cobb’s slides and sealed with a paraffin ring and glycerin (Cobb, 1917). Nematodes were observed, measured and photographed with the aid of a compound microscope (Olympus, BX53) equipped with digital camera (DP73, Olympus). Morphometrics included de Mans indices and most of the usual measurement. Raw photographs were edited using Adobe Photoshop software.

    Results and Discussion

    Class Enoplea Inglis, 1983 Yuchim-gang

    Order Dorylaimida Pearse, 1942 Chang-seonchung-mok

    Family Aporcelaimidae Heyns, 1965 Keun-gumeong-chang-seonchung- gua

    Genus AporcelaimellusHeyns, 1965 Keun-gumeong-chang-seonchung- sok

    1. Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus (Bastian, 1865) Altherr, 1968

    Keun-gumeong-chang-seonchung (New Korean name) (Figs. 1, 2)

    Synonym.

    Dorylaimus obtusicaudatusBastian, 1865

    Eudorylaimus obtusicaudatus (Bastian, 1865) Andrássy, 1959

    Dorylaimus perfectusCobb, 1893

    Dorylaimus obtusicaudatus perfectus Cobb, 1893 (Schneider, 1937)

    Dorylaimus ornatusFuchs, 1930

    Dorylaimus obscurusThorne & Swanger, 1936

    Eudorylaimus obscurus (Thorne & Swanger, 1936) Andrássy, 1959

    Aporcelaimus obscurus (Thorne & Swanger, 1936) Goodey, 1961

    Aporcelaimellus obscurus (Thorne & Swanger, 1936) Heyns, 1965

    Dorylaimus quietusKirjanova, 1951

    Eudorylaimus quietus (Kirjanova, 1951) Andrássy, 1959

    Aporcelaimellus quietus (Kirjanova, 1951) Baqri & Khan, 1975

    Aporcelaimellus williamsiHeyns, 1965

    Aporcelaimellus obscuroidesAltherr, 1968

    Aporcelaimellus microhysteraAltherr, 1976

    Aporcelaimellus sacchariKhan, 1989

    Measurements. Korea population: Female: L=2.6–3.1㎜; a=21.6–24.3; b=4.0–4.5; c=72.9-89.2; c'=0.5–0.6; V=47.1– 52.3%. Altherr, 1968: Female: L=2.2–3.0㎜; a=20–32; b=4.1– 4.6; c=60–92; c'=0.5–0.8; V=48–55%. Females (topotypes) after De Ley, Loof & Coomans (1993): L=2.18–2.57㎜; a=25–31; b=3.6–4.5; c=77–103; c'=0.5–0.7; V=49-56%. Male: not known with certainty.

    Diagnosis. Body large sized, robust. Body length 2.2-3.1㎜ long. Cuticle comparatively thin, about 4㎛ thick on most part of body, 8–9μm on tail. Labial region well offset, 18–22㎛ wide, lips amalgamated (Fig. 1A). Odontostyle 22–26㎛ long, aperture 1/2 of odontostyle length. Oesophagus 540–640㎛ long. Vulval lips strongly sclerotized (Fig. 1C). Tail 26–40㎛ long, conoid- rounded with very thick somatic muscle layer (Fig. 1B).

    Material examined. Soil from soybean field in Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Europe, Asia, North America.

    Remarks. This species can be recognized by its large body, short odontostyle being much thicker than cuticle at the same level, well developed gonads, shape and length of the tail. Among this genus, the outstanding characteristic of this species is that vulval lips strongly sclerotized and average body length 2.6㎜ (2.2-3.1㎜).

    Voucher slides. Two slides of nematode specimens were deposited at National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea (NIBRIV0000325805–6).

    Family Qudsianematidae Jairajpuri, 1965 Jjalbeun-kkoli- chang-seonchung-gua

    Genus EudorylaimusAndrássy, 1959 Ppyojog-kkoli- chang-seonchung-sok

    2. Eudorylaimus arcus (Thorne and Swanger, 1936) Andrássy, 1959

    Dokdo-ppyojog-kkoli-chang-seonchung (New Korean name) (Figs. 3, 4)

    Synonym.

    Dorylaimus arcusThorne and Swanger, 1936

    Aporcelaimus mulveyiBrezeski, 1962

    Eudorylaimus mulveyi (Brezeski, 1962) Tjepkema, Ferris and Ferris, 1971

    Measurements. Korea population: Female: L=1.1㎜; a=23.7; b=4.0; c=29.6; c'=1.8; V=54.7%. Thorne, 1974: Female: L=1.3 ㎜; a=24; b=3.6; c=36; V=58%. Male: L=1.3㎜; a=29; b=4.0; c=37; T=62.

    Diagnosis. Body moderately arcuate (Fig. 3A). Lateral field about 1/3body width. Lips angular with prominent papillae (Fig. 3B). Spear about 16㎛ long with aperture 2/5 its length. Guiding ring refractive. Vagina extending halfway across body. Vulva longitudinal. Uterus forming a massive spermatheca packed with sperms (Fig. 3C). Males with 11 or 12pairs of mammiform supplements, the series beginning well in front of spicula. Spicula massive, about 50㎛ long. Tip of tail pointed and tails of both sexes similar, ventrally curved (Fig. 3D).

    Material examined. Soil around weed from Dokdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Poland, Italy, Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, United States.

    Remarks:E. arcus is distinctive because of the wide lateral field, tail form and supplement arrangement. This species is closed to E. subdigitalis but differ by odontostyle. E. arcus is odontostyle nearly as thick as cuticle at same level.

    Voucher slides. Two slides of nematode specimens were deposited at National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea (NIBRIV0000325807–8).

    Family Dorylaimidae de Man, Chang-seonchung-gua

    Genus MesodorylaimusAndrássy, 1959 Junggan-chang-seonchung- sok

    3. Mesodorylaimus spengelii (de Man, 1912) Andrássy, 1959

    Mungtug-kkoli-chang-seonchung (New Korean name) (Figs. 5, 6)

    Synonym.

    Dorylaimus spengeliide Man, 1912

    Measurements. Korea population: L=1.16㎜; a=29.5; b=4.7; c=14.3; c'=2.7; V=51.6%.

    Diagnosis. Cuticle smooth. Body small to moderately long, 0.8 to 2.3㎜ (Fig. 5A). Lips rounded or angular, labial region more or less offset (Fig. 5B). Odontostyle straight, rather short, 1 to 1.5 times as long as labial width. Guiding ring simple. Oesophagus widened at middle or posterior to it. Posterior end of intestine often with a long tongue-like inner process. Tails show sexual dimorphism: Females are more or less elongate to filiform, often conoid-rounded with shorter or longer process (Fig. 5D). Male tails are short and rounded. Females usually more abundant than males.

    Distribution. Korea (new record), Spain, Netherland.

    Material examined. Soil around roots of soybean plant from Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.

    Remarks. Smaller species with short odontostylet, simple guiding ring. Female tail more or less uniformly attenuated, tip is not swollen, nor curved dorsally. Vulval region without papillae or folds. Female tail 2.0-2.5anal body diameter. M. spengelii is closed to M. luci. The outstanding characteristic of this species is that female tail 2.0-2.5anal body widths long. But female tail of M. luci is 3anal body widths long or longer.

    Voucher slides. Two slides of nematode specimens were deposited at National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea (NIBRIV0000325809–10).

    Acknowledgement

    This work was supported by a 2-Year Research Grant of Pusan National University.

    Figures

    JALS-55-2-83_F1.gif

    Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus (Bastian, 1865) Altherr, 1968. A. Anterior part; B. Posterior part of female; C. Vulval region. Scale bars: A–C=50㎛.

    JALS-55-2-83_F2.gif

    Line drawing of Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus (Bastian, 1865) Altherr, 1968. A. Anterior part; B. Vulval region; C. Posterior part of female. Scale bar represents 50㎛.

    JALS-55-2-83_F3.gif

    Eudorylaimus arcus (Thorne and Swanger, 1936) Andrássy, 1959. A. overall view; B. Anterior part; C. Vulval region; D: Posterior part of female. Scale bars: A=100㎛; B–D=20㎛.

    JALS-55-2-83_F4.gif

    Line drawing of Eudorylaimus arcus (Thorne and Swanger, 1936) Andrássy, 1959. A. Anterior part; B. Vulval region; C. Female tail. Scale bar represents 20㎛.

    JALS-55-2-83_F5.gif

    Mesodorylaimus spengelii (de Man, 1912) Andrássy, 1959. A. Overall view; B. Anterior part; C. Vulval region; D. Posterior part of female. Scale bars: A=100㎛; B–C=20㎛.

    JALS-55-2-83_F6.gif

    Line drawing of Mesodorylaimus spengelii (de Man, 1912) Andrássy, 1959. A. Anterior part; B. Vulval region; C. Posterior part of female. Scale bar represents 20㎛.

    Tables

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