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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.55 No.2 pp.65-73

Characteristics of Leaf and Fruit in Gyeongnam Astringent Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) Cultivars

Seung-Mi Kang1, Hak-Gon Kim1, Seong-Hyeon Yong2,4, Dong-Jin Park3, Do-Hyun Kim2, Kwan-Been Park2, Myung-Suk Choi2,4*
1Gyeongsangnam-do Forest Environment Research Institute, 52615, Korea
2Department of Forest Environmental Resources, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Korea
3Department of Seed and Seedling Management, National Forest Seed and Cultivar Center, Chungju, 27495, Korea
4Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Korea
*Corresponding author: Myung-Suk Choi Tel: +82-55-772-1856 Fax: +82-55-772-1859 E-mail:
January 25, 2021 ; February 16, 2021 ; February 24, 2021


This study was carried out determination of characteristics of leaf and fruit of 13 astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki) cultivars cultivated in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. In leaf size, Deabonggam was smaller than that of other astringent persimmon cultivars, however, Dansungsi and Bansi were largest compared to other persimmon cultivars. Fruit width size of Sancheong Deabonggam and Bansi were the biggest. And fruit width size was the biggest in Sancheong Deabonggam. When same cultivars as Dansungsi and Godongsi were cultivated at other regions, it was not somewhat different in fruit weight. The size of fruits of the cultivar varied depending on the maturation of the fruits. In immature fruit, Curigam and Susi cultivars were the biggest and these cultivars were also were the biggest in mature-green fruit. In full ripe fruit, Hamyang Daebonggam and Hadong Daebonggam and Daeheakmu were bigger than that of other cultivars. When the astringent persimmon varieties collected in July were divided into three clusters, group A had a higher leaf area and the lightest fruit weight than the other clusters. In cluster C, the leaf area was small, but the fruit weight was classified as heavier than the other clusters. This study is expected to be widely used for breeding, conservation and processing of sweet persimmons.


    Forestry Science and Technology Research and Development


    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is widely distributed in regions from subtropical to temperate regions of the East such as Korea, Japan, and China, and is widely cultivated anywhere in the country, except for some mountainous regions suitable for climate (Jo et al., 2010). Persimmons can be classified into two main groups: complete sweet persimmon and incomplete sweet persimmon according to the criteria for cultivated varieties (Akagi, 2011), and four kinds of persimmons are as follows depending on the astringency of the fruit at the time of harvest, the presence or absence of seeds, and the color of the flesh. Persimmons can be categorized as: pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), pollination-variant astringent, PVA), pollination-constant astringent (PCA) (Yonemori & Sugiura, 2000). The necessity for a folklore plant such as a persimmon database construction and preservation are being emphasized as the Convention on Biological Species Diversity (CBD), Nagoya Protocol enters into force (Im et al., 2011;Arjjumend, 2018).

    The astringent persimmon products with the largest to domestic cultivation and production are Banshi and Gabjubaekmok (Daebonggam). Gabjubaekmok is one of the astringent persimmon varieties and called as Daebonsi, Daealgam and Jangdugam etc. The size of the fruit is very large, and Yeongam, Gwangyang in Jeollanam-do, Hadong and Jinju in Gyeongsangnam-do, are major production areas (No et al., 2014). Bansi also one of the astringent persimmon cultivars have characteristics seedless, has been used in many processed products as dried persimmons and Gammallaengi (drided slices persimmon). This species is the main producing areas such as Chungdo, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea (Sangju Persimmon Research Institute, 2012).

    Astringent persimmon main growing region of Gyeongsangnam-do as Hamyang, Sancheong, Hadong, Haman, Miryang, Uiryeong and Goseong. Bansi in Miryang area is mostly cultivated, and Sancheong and Hamyang area is cultivated mainly Godongsi and Dansungsi, Susi is mainly grown in Hadong and Uiryeong area is mainly cultivated Gabjubaekmok (Korea Forest Service, 2010).

    Astringent persimmon is one of a very high nutritional value of fruit. As is often the main component carbohydrate content of glucose and fructose, there is a slight difference in astringent persimmons and persimmon. Persimmon also has a high vitamin C content 4-5 times higher than the apple known as minerals and vitamins A, vitamin B1, pantothenic acid, folic acid, such as alkali-rich foods (Joo et al., 2011).

    Astringent persimmon has a functional phenol compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate is large amount, because it contains soluble tannin that the astringency of dispyrin prevention of tissue damage, anti-aging, is known to have preventive and anticancer effects of cardiovascular disease (Jeong et al., 2010;Achiwa et al., 1999).

    A study on astringent persimmon varieties was published by Sangju Persimmon Research Institute as an encyclopedia of resource distribution, tree properties, and fruit characteristics for 244 varieties of Korea (Sangju Persimmon Research Institute, 2012). Native astringent persimmon cultivars grown in Yeongnam region has Dungsi in the Sangju, Bansi in Chungdo, Unpungjunsi in Yecheon, Sagoksi in Sungju, Gojongsi in Yecheon, Youngju and Gyeongnam western, Daesimukgam in Gimcheon and Sungju and Godongsi and Dansungsi in Sancheong and etc. (Korea Forest Service, 2010). However, studies on astringent persimmon cultivars have been conducted very rarely, and in particular, studies on genetic resources of astringent persimmon trees in Gyeongsangnam-do region have not been conducted. This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the leaves and fruit of the astringent persimmon tree varieties that are grown in Gyeongsangnam-do to secure the basic data processing technology as the development and breeding material.

    Materials and Methods

    1. Astringent persimmon cultivars and collection time

    Astringent persimmon varieties were collected 13 cultivars indicated Table 1. Susi from Haman, Yeolyegam from Hadong, Daebonggam from Hadong, Dansungsi from Sancheoung, Godongsi from Sancheoung, Curigam from Sancheoung, Dungsi from Sangju, Bansi from Milyang, Daesi from Hamyang, Godongsi from Hamyang, Dansungsi from Hamyang, Daeheakmu from Hamyang, Daebonggam from Hamyang and Godongsi from Hamyang, Gyeongsangnam-do were collected. Leaf and fruit of astringent persimmon were collected three times, July, September and November, 2018. After collecting the leaves and fruits of astringent persimmons, characterization was conducted immediately.

    2. Characterization of astringent persimmon leaf

    Color and width of astringent persimmon leaf was measured by collecting in July. Leaf area survey after collecting recent third leaves were investigated. It scanned the leaves, and then the number of pixels per 1cm2 was calculated by the following proportional next area.

    Pixel value of leaf area 13924 =leaf area cm 2

    3. Characterization of astringent persimmon fruit

    The characteristics of the astringent persimmon were examined three times. The collected fruits are measured the width, length, height (mm), and the weight (g) of each fruits. Also, chromaticity of leaf and fruit was analyzed using a colorimeter equipped with a (Variable, inc., USA) Chroma narrow (Variable, inc., USA) to NODE platform. After Astringent change in chromaticity was calculated by the following equation. The L* value represents the brightness and is displayed from 0 to 100. Values a* and b* generally represent saturation and are plane coordinate systems such as the XY coordinate system. The horizontal axis has a* value and the vertical axis has a value of b*. The +a direction is red, the -a direction is green, the +b direction is yellow, and the -b direction is cyan.

    Δ E ( L * , a * , b * ) = { ( Δ L * ) 2 + ( Δ a * ) 2 + ( Δ b * ) 2 } 1 / 2

    4. Statistical analysis

    The correlation between leaf area and fruit weight of astringent persimmon cultivar was conducted using the SPSS 23.0 statistical package and Duncan' multiple range test at P<0.05 level. For the leaf area and fruit weight characteristics, cluster analysis was performed based on the leaf and immature data measured in July.

    Results and Discussion

    1. Characteristics of astringent persimmon leaf

    The astringent persimmon leaves showed a big difference in shape (Fig. 1). The size of the astringent persimmon leaf cultivars collected in July was the smallest in Daebonggam and the largest in Dansungsi. Also, the shape of each leaf was different. The shape of leaves Daeheakmoo and Daebonggam were spherical, and the rest of the cultivars were elliptical.

    The color of the leaves was also different depending on the persimmon cultivars (Table 1). The value of L, representing the brightness, was high in the leaves of Daesi and Daebongggam (Hamyang). However, Bansi (Milyang), Susi (Haman), and Dansungsi (Sancheoung) showed dark colors with low L values. The value of a, representing the redness was higher in Godongsi collectedin Hamyang. In addition, the value of b, indicating the yellowness, was thelargest in Curigam (Sancheoung), Daesi (Hamyang), Godongsi (Sancheoung) and Yeolyegam (Hadong).

    In general, harvest time by astringent persimmon cultivar can be divided into early maturing cultivar, medium-maturing cultivar, and late maturing cultivar. In this study, leaf area of a typical late maturing cultivar, Daebonggam was smaller than other cultivars. In addition, the weight of the astringent persimmon fruits mentioned earlier showed that small. There leaf area and weight of the fruit is reported to be very closely related (KFS, 2010). Proper leaf area per fruit might be different depending on each particular weather conditions, light intensity, fruiting extent, fertilization and irrigation management.

    2. Characteristics of astringent persimmon fruit

    2.1. Fruit size

    The size of astringent persimmon fruits by harvesting period for each tree species showed a great difference by cultivars (Table 2). In the case of unripe fruits whose collection time was July, the fruit horizontal length was the longest at 54.57cm in Daeheakmu of Hamyang, and the shortest at 32.89cm in Curigam of Sancheong. The vertical length of fruit was the longest in Daeheakmu of 53.44cm, followed by Bansi in Miryang and the shortest in Susi of Haman with 36.12cm. It was confirmed that the height of Hadong Yeolyegam was the longest and Milyang Bansi was the shortest.

    As a result of observing the green ripe fruit, which was collected in September, the horizontal length was the same as that of the unripe fruit. The vertical length was longer in the Hamyang Deaheakmu and the Haman Susi and Sancheong Curigam were short. The height was the longest in Hamyang Daebonggam, followed by Hadong Yeolyegam. The shortest species was Milyang Bansi.

    The harvest period was November, and the horizontal length was the longest in Hamyang Deaheakmoo and Daebonggam, and the shortest in Sancheoung Curigam. As for the vertical length, as in the result of the previous horizontal length, Deaheakmoo and Daebonggam were the longest, and Sancheong Curigam was the shortest. The height was similar to that of the green ripened fruit.

    There was a significant change in fruit growth at the stage of transition from unripe fruit to green ripe fruit. It is estimated that the environment such as temperature has a great influence on the growth of fruit. The sugar content of persimmon and the weight of fruit are also affected by the maturation process of fruit, which is known as the effect of temperature (Tromp, 1997;Yamaki & Ishikawa, 1986).

    The shape of fruits such as apples, pears, and peaches is known to be affected by the seasonality of fruit length and fruit width (Westwood, 1993). After flowering, fruits exposed to low temperatures tend to grow wider than their horizontal length, and the shape of the fruit tends to be slightly oval (Westwood, 1962). In general, the shape of fruit grown in warm regions is known as a circular shape and appears circular even in a slightly cold region (Westwood & Burkhart, 1968). The shape of the fruit, which varies from species to species, appears to be caused by environmental factors and specific genetic characteristics of the species.

    2.2. Fruit weight

    There was a big difference in fruit weight of varieties by period (Table 3, Fig. 2.). Among the unripe fruits collected in July, the heaviest cultivar was 70.8g of Hamyang Daeheakmu, followed by Hadong Yeolyegam. The smallest cultivar was Sancheong Curigam, which was 28.62g, followed by Haman Susi.

    In the state of green ripened persimmon when the collection time was in September, the heaviest cultivar was 168.52g of Hamyang Daeheakmu, followed by Hamyang Daebonggam and Hadong Yeolyegam. The smallest cultivar was Sancheong Curigam, which was 71.06g, followed by Hamyang Godongsi.

    The weight of astringent persimmons in the ripening period, when the collection period is November, was Hamyang Daebongggam the largest at 316.29g in Hamyang area, followed by Daekukmu in Hamyang area, Daebonggam in Hadong area, and Dash in Hamyang area. On the other hand, Sancheong Curigam had the smallest weight at 71.06g, followed by Godongsi of Hamyang and Sancheoung area.

    Each cultivar fruit was found to grow more from July to September than from September to November. Fruit grows 2.6-2.9 times from July to September, and 1-2.1 times from September to November. From July to September, the varieties with the most fruit growth were Haman Susi and Hadong Yeolyegam, and the other cultivars were 2.6 times the same. The cultivar with the most fruitful growth between July and September was the Daebonggam in Hadong, and the Sancheongkuri did not grow.

    The number of days required from persimmon tree flowering date to fruit maturity depends on the average temperature in October and the number of days of integration, and the fruit weight was reported to be the most affected by the average temperature in March and the average temperature in October (Jeon et al., 2010). In addition, as a result of a study of weather factors affecting the fruit characteristics and yield of Sangju Dungsi for five years from 2010 to 2015, it was found that the daylength was in April, when the growth started, and October, when the weight of the fruit increased (Sugiura et al., 1991). reported that the fruit growth of the sweet persimmon “Buyu” increased significantly during the first growth phase and the fruit weight during the third period. It was reported that fruit growth showed a difference according to the temperature of the growing period, and when the temperature was low, the second period of fruit growth was shortened and the overall growth period was shortened. The results of this study also seem to show differences in the characteristics of fruits due to various environmental factors such as weather factors.

    Mowat et al. (1997) also reported that mature fruits grown in subtropical regions have significantly higher soluble solids concentration and lower soluble tannin content than those grown in temperate regions. Fruit development also showed differences between climate zones, and fruit weight and fruit color also varied according to macro climate.

    3. Characteristics of the same variety growing in different regions

    Fruit weight of Sancheong and Hamyang Dansungsi was no significant difference between the two regions (Fig. 3A,B). In addition, growth of Dansungsi was constantly increased with the growing time. Changes in fruit maturity by weight showed that there is no difference.

    In a comparison of weight between the two regions, Daebonggam grown in Hamyang showed an increase in weight faster than that of Hadong (Fig 3C).

    Fruit trees are perennial crops grown for an average of 30 years. Growth and fruit quality of fruit tree is affected by the climate or microclimate conditions of temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, wind during the growing season (Seo, 2003). The difference in fruit quality seems to be due to differences in cultivated varieties, weather conditions, soil conditions, and cultivation management in the cultivation area.

    4. Correlation between the leaves and fruit characteristics

    When analyzing the relationship between the leaves and weight of the collected astringent persimmon cultivars, it was classified into three groups: cultivars with large leaf area, cultivars with large fruit size, and cultivars with medium leaf area and weight (Fig. 4). Group A belonged to Dansungsi and Deaheakmoo showed the characteristics of broad leaf area and low fruit weight. Contrary to group A, group C, which included Hadong Yeolyegam and Dungsi in Hamyang area, had less leaf area and greater fruit weight. When the astringent persimmon cultivars collected in July were divided into three clusters, group A showed higher leaf area compared to other clusters, while the weight of fruit was the lowest. In the case of cluster C, the leaf area was lower than that of other clusters, but the fruit weight was higher. In the case of cluster B, the leaf area of the cluster was 4 times lower than that of cluster A, but the weight of the fruit was more than twice as high. The center value of the cluster for is about 330.1, showing a low difference. In other words, when developing a product using persimmon tree, it is reasonable to select a cultivar that goes into cluster A to develop a product using astringent persimmon leaves, and to develop a product using unripe fruit, it is reasonable to select a cultivar corresponding to cluster C. In addition, in order to develop a product using both persimmon leaves and unripe fruits, it would be reasonable to select a cultivar corresponding to cluster B (Table 4 and 5).

    As such, it seems that the growth environment such as growth temperature has a great influence on the classification according to the size of the fruit and the shape of the leaf. Kim (2007) also reported that the growth of persimmons in March, the average and accumulated temperature in September, and the accumulated temperature in April had a significant effect on the results of the analysis of key factors on Korean persimmon. In addition, it was said that the average temperature in July and September and the cumulative temperature in October affected the overweight. However, detailed studies on genetic factors and microenvironmental regulation are desired.

    This research is expected to be the basis for the preservation of the disappearing astringent persimmon tree genetic resources and the breeding of new varieties using various breeding techniques.


    This work was supported by Forestry Science and Technology Research and Development Project (Forest Convergence Specialist Training Project, Project No. 2020186A00-2022-AA02) funded by the Korea Forest Service.



    Leaf shape of astringent persimmon varieties cultivated at various regions.

    Leaf of persimmon varieties was collected in July and their characteristics were investigated.

    A: Curigam, B:Yeolyegam, C:Dungsi, D:Curigam, E:Susi, F: Daesi. G:Godongsi, H:Daebonggam, I: Bansi, and J:g Dansungsi


    Representative fruit shape of Persimmon cultivars collected November.

    A: Godongsi, B: Bansi, C: Curigam, D: Dansungsi and E: Daebonggam


    Fruit size of same astringent persimmon varieties cultivated at other regions.

    A: Sancheoung Dansungsi and Hamyang Dansungsi, B: Sancheoung Godongsi and Hamyang Godongsi, and C: Hadong Daebonggam and Hamyang Daebonggam


    Relationship between leaf area and fruit weight on various astringent persimmon varieties.

    A: Cluster with a higher leaf area and lower fruit weight (Bansi, Dansingsi, Daeheakmu), B: Cluster with a medium leaf area and medium fruit weight (Curigam, Daesi, Dansingsi, Godongsi), C: Cluster with a lower leaf area and higher fruit weight (Yeolyegam, Dungsi, Daebongam)


    Leaf area and leaf color of astringent persimmon varieties

    Fruit size of astringent persimmon varieties based on growth period

    Fruit weight of astringent persimmon varieties based on growth period

    Standard point of colony in leaf area with astringent persimmon fruit

    Classification of astringent persimmon varieties on coloration leaf area and fruit weight


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