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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.54 No.4 pp.69-74
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2020.54.4.69

Effects of Potato By-products Containing Glycoalkaloid on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

Dimas Hand Vidya Paradhipta1,2†, Hyuk-Jun Lee1†, Young-Ho Joo1, Seong-Shin Lee1, Dong-Hun Kang3, Ki-Yong Chung3, Sam-Churl Kim1*
1Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Korea
2Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
3Department of Beef Science, Korea National Collage of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jeonju, 54874, Korea

These authors contributed equally to this work


*Corresponding author: Sam-Churl Kim Tel:
+82-55-772-1947 Fax: +82-55-772-1949 E-mail:
kimsc@gnu.ac.kr
May 20, 2020 June 12, 2020 July 15, 2020

Abstract

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of feed types (powder vs. pellet) from potato by-product containing glycoalkaloid on rumen fermentation with different rumen pH (low vs. high) using in vitro technique. Rumen fluid was collected from two cannulated Hanwoo heifers before morning feeding (high rumen pH at 6.71) and 3 h after feeding (low rumen pH at 6.20). A 0.5 gram of powder or pellet from potato by-product was incubated in the rumen buffer for 48 h at 39℃. Four replications for each treatment were used along with two blanks. Pellet had higher (p<0.05) the immediately degradable fraction, the fractional degradation rate, and the lag phase than those of powder. However, feed type had no effects on the potentially degradable fraction and the total degradable fraction. In fermentation characteristics, powder had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of ammonia-N, total volatile fatty acid (VFA), and acetate than those of pellet. In addition, a high rumen pH had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of ammonia-N and acetate, but lower (p<0.05) total VFA concentration than those of a low rumen pH. The interaction effects between feed type and rumen pH were found on the total degradable fraction and concentrations of ammonia-N, total VFA, and acetate. The present study concluded that generally feed type had no effects on rumen degradation kinetics, but potato by-product in the powder form is recommended due to produce higher fermentation characteristics than in the pellet form.

초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ009414

    Introduction

    Potato by-product is one of the alternative feeds because it is cheap and provides a good nutrient value with high energy for the animal (Ncobela et al., 2017). In general, the potato by-product can consist of peels, pulp, vine, hash, and leaf. From fresh plant or processing waste, the dry matter (DM) content of potato by-product is around 10% to 30% (Bradshaw et al., 2002). According to Nelson et al. (2000), potato by-product contains 55.9, 11.6, and 1.7% on DM basis of starch, crude protein (CP), and total fatty acid, receptively. The CP content of potato by-product mainly consists of non-protein nitrogen, which contains 60% of rumen degradable protein (Bradshaw et al., 2002). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of potato by-product are at 35.3- 46.2% and 15.3-34.2% of DM, respectively, which were varied with the part of by-product and its proportion in the feedstuff (Ncobela et al., 2017). In previous study, replacement 10% of corn grain with potato by-product in the diet increased DM intake and gain of beef cattle (Nelson et al., 2000). In addition, 10-20% replacement of potato by-product with corn or barley grains for beef cattle had shown lower inappropriate aromatics and aftertaste of meat, which could increase meat flavor (Busboom et al., 2000). Charmley et al. (2006) reported that potato by-product also could replace corn and barley grain up to 40% without any negative effects on animal growth, carcass, or meat quality.

    Most of previous studies applied potato by-product for animal diets in the forms of fresh, dried, ensiled, or steamed (Ncobela et al., 2017). In fact, processing potato by-product as powder or pellet is easier to apply in the industrial scale. Powder or pellet of potato by-product can be easier to store, fed, or mix with the other ingredients for making diet ration. However, none of study was conducted to compare the effectiveness between powder and pellet form of potato by-product, especially in rumen fermentation. In addition, the different type of feed could affect the digestibility and fermentation characteristics in the rumen (Hobson & Stewart, 1997). On the other side, high energy diet provides more soluble carbohydrate that can increase organic acid production in the rumen and drop the pH faster than low energy diet (Hobson & Stewart, 1997). Potato by-product contains growth promoter such as glycoalkaloid (Mohan, 2008;Omayio et al., 2016), which its effect on rumen fermentation might be influenced by level of energy diet. High and low rumen pH in the present study were demonstrated the low energy diet in growing period of Hanwoo steer and the high energy diet in fattening period of Hanwoo steer, respectively. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different feed types (powder vs. pellet) from potato by-product on rumen fermentation with two different rumen pH (high pH vs. low pH) using in vitro technique.

    Materials and Methods

    1. Chemical compositions

    Two feed types of potato by-product were used as a treatment, consisting of powder and pellet. These potato by-products were obtained from Hanwoo Research Institute, Ganwon Province, South Korea. The sub- sampled powder and pellet were dried at 65℃ for 48 h and ground to pass 1-mm screen using a cutting mill (Shinmyung Electric Co., Ltd, Gimpo, Korea) for the measurement of chemical compositions and in vitro rumen incubation for 48 h. The DM concentration was determined by drying 10 g of sample into the dry oven (OF-22GW, Jeio Tech, Seoul, Korea) at 105℃ for 24 h. The crude ash (CA) concentration was determined with a muffle furnace at 550℃ for 5 h. The CP and ether extract (EE) concentrations were determined by the producers of Kjeldahl using N analyzer (B-324, 412, 435 and 719 S Titrino, BUCHI, Flawil, Switzerland) and Soxhlet, respectively (AOAC, 1995). The NDF and ADF concentrations were determined by using Ankom 200 fiber analyzer (Ankom Technology, Macedon, NY, USA) following the procedure of Van Soest et al. (1991). The concentration of hemicellulose (HEMI) was calculated by the differences between NDF and ADF.

    2. In vitro rumen incubation

    The procedure of animal care was approved by animal ethical committee of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea (GNU-191011-E0050). The rumen fluid was collected from two non-pregnant cannulated Hanwoo heifers just before morning feeding for high rumen pH (6.71) and 3 h after feeding for low rumen pH (6.20). The animal diets consisted of rice straw and commercial concentrate mix at 8:2 ratio. The rumen fluid was composited by collection times, and then filtered via two layers of cheesecloth. Rumen buffer was made by mixing rumen fluid with anaerobic culture medium at 1:2 ratio described by Adesogan et al. (2005). Potato by-product (0.5 g) was weighed into incubation bottle with 40 mL of rumen buffer. Then, the incubation bottle was gassed with CO2 and closed tightly to reach anaerobic condition. Four replications for each treatment were used along with two blanks. All incubation bottles were placed for 48 h at 39℃ in incubator (OF-22GW, Jeio Tech, Seoul, Korea). Gas pressure was monitored in every 30 min using wireless automated system by ANKOMRF (ANKOM Technology, Macedon, NY, USA) to calculate degradation kinetics in the rumen (Adesogan et al., 2005). The rumen fermentation kinetics generated from the gas pressures using nonlinear regression procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2002) to fit with the model of McDonald (1981) following:

    Y = A + B ( 1 - e - c ( t - L ) ) for t > L

    where A is the immediately degradable fraction; B is the potentially degradable fraction; A + B is total degradable fraction; C is the fractional degradation rate; L is the lag phase; and t is time of incubation (h).

    After incubation, bottles were opened and transferred to 50 mL conical tube to separate remains sample and supernatant (rumen buffer) through centrifugation at 2568 × g for 15 min (Supra 21k, Hanil Electric Corporation, Seoul, South Korea, with rotor A50S-6C No.6). The supernatant was used to analyze rumen fermentation characteristics such as pH, ammonia-N, and volatile fatty acid (VFA). The pH and ammonia-N were measured using pH meter (SevenEasy, Mettler Toledo, Greifensee, Switzerland) and the colorimetric method described by Chaney and Marbach (1962), respectively. The concentration of VFA were determined using HPLC (L-2200, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) fitted with a UV detector (L-2400; Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) and a column (Metacarb 87H; Varian, Palo Alto, CA, USA) according to the method described by Muck and Dickerson (1988).

    3. Statistical analysis

    The experiment was conducted by a 2 (Feed type; Powder vs. Pellet) × 2 (Rumen pH; high at 6.71 vs. low at 6.20) factorial design with four replicates per treatment and all data were analyzed PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS, 2002) to test the effects of feed size, rumen pH, and its interaction (feed type × rumen pH). The model was Y i j k = μ + α i + β j + ( α β ) i j + e i j k , where Yijk = response variable, μ = overall mean, αi = the effect of feed type, βj = the effect of rumen pH, (αβ)ij = the interaction effect of feed type and rumen pH, eijk = error term. On the other side, data of gas production were analyzed individually for each hour of incubation (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, and 48 h) using PROC ANOVA of SAS (SAS, 2002). Then, mean comparison was performed by Tukey’s test. All significant differences were declared at p≤0.05.

    Results

    1. Chemical compositions of potato by-product

    Concentrations of DM, CP, EE, CA, NDF, ADF, and HEMI from potato by-product as powder were 97.0, 16.1, 2.68, 24.9, 39.0, 26.6, and 12.4%, respectively (Table 1). The α-chaconine and α-solanine form potato by-product as powder were 1.75 mg/g and 0.47 mg/g, respectively. On the other side, concentrations of DM, CP, EE, CA, NDF, ADF, and HEMI from potato by-product as pellet were 94.2, 8.21, 39.4, 21.2, 31.1, 12.5, and 18.6%, respectively. The α-chaconine and α-solanine form potato by-product as pellet were 1.69 mg/g and 0.54 mg/g, respectively.

    2. Degradation kinetics in the rumen

    Application of pellet had higher the immediately degradable fraction (p=0.011; 0.31 vs. 0.00 mL/g), the fractional degradation rate (p=0.043; 0.92 vs. 0.07 %/h), and the lag phase (p=0.002; 1.78 vs. 0.00 mL/g) in the rumen than application of powder (Table 2). The potentially degradable fraction and the total degradable fraction were not affected by the feed type in the present study. On the other side, all parameters of rumen degradation kinetics were not affected by different rumen pH. The interaction effect between feed type and rumen pH was only detected on the total degradable fraction (p=0.032). In general, a low rumen pH with both powder and pellet had lower (p<0.05) total gas production during 48 h of incubation than a high rumen pH (Fig. 1). In a low rumen pH, pellet had lower (p<0.05) total gas production than powder only on 16 and 24 h of incubation. Additionally, pellet had no difference of total gas production with powder during 48 h in a high rumen pH.

    3. Fermentation characteristics in the rumen

    In rumen fermentation characteristics, powder presented lower pH (p=0.001; 6.65 vs. 6.75) and concentrations of propionate (p<0.001; 25.0 vs. 27.8%) and butyrate (p<0.001; 10.9 vs. 12.5%), but had higher concentrations of total VFA (p<0.001; 91.0 vs. 73.9 mM/dL) and acetate (p<0.001; 58.9 vs. 52.9%) and acetate to propionate ratio (p<0.001; 2.36 vs. 1.98) than those of pellet (Table 3). On the other side, a high rumen pH resulted in higher pH (p=0.009; 6.75 vs. 6.65), concentrations of ammonia-N (p=0.066; 42.5 vs. 39.3 mg/dL) and acetate (p<0.001; 57.5 vs. 54.3%), and acetate to propionate ratio (p=0.002; 2.22 vs. 2.12), but had lower concentrations of total VFA (p<0.001; 78.6 vs. 86.3 mM/dL) and butyrate (p=0.003; 11.0 vs. 12.3%) than those of a low rumen pH. The interaction effect between feed type and rumen pH was found in ammonia-N (p=0.001), concentrations of total VFA (p=0.001) and acetate (p<0.001).

    Discussion

    In the pelleting process, the other material such as carbohydrate or lipid compounds can be added to coat and increase solidity and hardness of feed (Thomas et al., 1998). Thus, pellet in the present study showed different chemical compositions compared to powder, especially in the concentration of EE that was higher in the pellet due to the addition of fatty acid. Furthermore, addition of lipid in the pelleting process reduced the proportion of potato by-product in the feed, which could decrease the concentrations of CP, NDF, CA, and ADF in the pellet than in the powder. As the original feedstuff, powder of potato by-product in the present study had a normal range according to previous studies (Bradshaw et al., 2002;Ncobela et al., 2017). However, the CP concentration of powder was higher than those previous studies. It could be caused by different potato hybrids or proportions of vines, peels, and leaf in the potato by-product (Busboom et al., 2000;Nelson et al., 2000;Bradshaw et al., 2002;Ncobela et al., 2017).

    In the rumen degradation kinetics, the immediately degradation fraction and the lag phase were reported zero in the present study. It could be occurred because powder had small particle (less than 1 mm), which had a low retention time and could be easier to degrade in the rumen (Hobson & Stewart, 1997). In addition, the particle of powder could be directly degraded as the potentially degradable fraction in the present study. Interestingly in a low rumen pH, the total degradable fraction increased in the powder but decreased in the pellet. The previous studies reported that factor affecting feed degradation in the rumen were rumen pH, particle size, and the substrate compounds (Stewart, 1977;Hoover, 1986;Hobson & Stewart, 1997). Potato by-product contained glycoalkaloid, which could be an inhibitor or growth promoter for human and animal depending its application rate (Mohan, 2008;Omayio et al., 2016). The presences of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine as glycoalkaloid might affected the growth of rumen microbes (King & McQueen, 1981), which might affect the total degradable fraction in the present study. However, the role and the mechanism of glycoalkaloid on rumen digestion with different feed type and rumen pH were unknown. On the other side, a high rumen pH had higher total gas production than a low rumen pH during 48 h. It occurred because low rumen pH was a cause of acidosis condition, which inhibited the growth of rumen microbes (Stewart, 1977;Hobson & Stewart, 1997)

    Even though had no significant effects on rumen degradation kinetics, different feed types had effect on fermentation characteristic in the rumen. Application of powder in a low rumen pH presented higher concentration of ammonia-N than in a high rumen pH, while application of pellet in low rumen pH presented lower concentration. There were several factors that could cause the result of ammonia-N in the present study such as chemical composition of feed, rumen pH, and particle size of feed (Stewart, 1977;Hoover, 1986;Hobson & Stewart, 1997). As smaller particle, powder was degraded rapidly compared to pellet in the present study, which could result in higher VFA concentration (Hobson & Stewart, 1997). High VFA concentration caused decreases of rumen pH reported by Hobson & Stewart (1997) were in agreement with the results of the present study. In the present study, powder contained higher structural carbohydrates such as NDF, ADF, and HEMI than pellet, which was a reason of higher acetate concentration in the rumen by powder application. In the rumen, structural carbohydrates were degraded mainly into acetate by rumen microbes (Hobson & Stewart, 1997;Sutton et al., 2003). Propionate was higher in the pellet than in the powder, which was caused by the chemical compositions of these feeds before incubation. Pellet contained high EE concentration that might increase concentration of propionate in the rumen (Hobson & Stewart, 1997). On the other side, high acetate concentration caused low butyrate concentration in the rumen by powder application and vice versa by pellet application, which was similar result to previous study (Paradhipta et al., 2020). In addition, the effect of rumen pH on acetate production supported with the results of gas production during 48 h (Fig. 1). A higher rumen pH shown with higher acetate concentration than a lower rumen pH was in agreement with Stewart (1977) that explained that a low rumen pH could inhibit the activity of cellulolytic bacteria to degrade the structural carbohydrate in the rumen.

    The results of the present study concluded that feed type had no effect on total degradation fraction, but application of powder presented high fermentation indices such as total VFA and acetate concentration than pellet. In addition, rumen pH had an interaction with feed type on the total degradable fraction and concentrations of ammonia-N, total VFA, and acetate. Potato by-product in the powder form is recommended for the further application based on results of the present study.

    Acknowledgment

    "This research was performed with the support of 'Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ009414)' Rural Development Administration, Korea.

    Figure

    JALS-54-4-69_F1.gif

    Effects of feed type and rumen pH on in vitro rumen gas production during 48 h of incubation. Potato powder in a high rumen pH (○); potato pellet in a high rumen pH (●); potato powder in a low rumen pH (□); potato pellet in a low rumen pH (■).

    a~cMeans in the same hour with different superscripts differ significantly (p≤0.05). The bar indicated standard error.

    Table

    Chemical composition of potato by-product

    Effects of feed types on rumen degradation kinetics of potato by-product with different rumen pH incubated for 48 h

    1A, the immediately degradable fraction; B, the potentially degradable fraction; A+B, the total degradable fraction; C, the fractional degradation rate; L, the lag phase.
    2Type of potato by-product consisted of powder and pellet.
    36.71, high rumen pH; 6.20, low rumen pH.
    4FEED, feed type effect; PH, rumen pH effect; FEED<sup>*</sup>PH; interaction between feed type and rumen pH.

    Effects of feed types on rumen fermentation characteristics of potato by-product with different rumen pH incubated for 48 h

    1Type of potato by-product consisted of powder and pellet.
    26.71, high rumen pH; 6.20, low rumen pH.
    3FEED, feed type effect; PH, rumen pH effect; FEED*PH; interaction between feed type and rumen pH.

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