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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.53 No.6 pp.119-128
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2019.53.6.119

Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread Using Whole Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Flour

Hyun-Gi Jung, Jine-Shang Choi*
Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, 52725, Korea
Corresponding author: Jine-Shang Choi Tel: +82-55-751-3275 Fax: +82-55-751-3279 E-mail: jschoi@gntech.ac.kr
November 13, 2019 ; December 17, 2019 ; December 17, 2019

Abstract


Five-color bread was prepared by adding herb powder to Korean whole wheat triticum aestivum flour and the quality of baking was analyzed. The pH of the control bread was 6.15±0.12 while that of the whole wheat flour test group was 6.35±0.11, 6.29±0.12, 6.36±0.12, 6.19±0.11, and 6.01±0.13, respectively. The L value of the control bread was 67.78±0.03 and that of the whole wheat flour test group was 69.66±0.02, 60.01±0.12, 64.23±0.01, 63.34±0.01, and 61.64±0.04, respectively. The water activity was slightly increased at 2 days of storage due to the difference in water absorption and water retention. However, on the third day, the water transfer phenomenon in the bread showed water activity decrease in all wheat flour test groups. On the 1st day of the whole wheat flour test bread, the hardness values were 186.86±4.81, 165.89±3.73, 189.71±3.32, 198.38±2.19, and 184.29±3.40 g/cm2, respectively, and that of the control group was 138.84±3.72 g/cm2. The hardness of the control group and the whole wheat flour test group showed a significant difference. The internal structure of the bread in the whole wheat flour test group (100x, 500x) was not smoother than the control’s. The swelling degree of the starch particles and the cracking of the crumbs were confirmed by the adding of five-colored herbs to whole wheat flour.



초록


    Introduction

    Recently, the consumer’s dietary culture has been transforming based on various perceptions related to such areas as well-being, wellness, herbal medicine fairs, and various health-related Expos. According to Korea’s grain standard (MIFAFF, 2017), annual wheat consumption is about 32.4 kg per person, which is the second largest consumption after rice. Domestically consumed wheat is imported more than 5 million tons per year from the United States, Canada, and Australia. However, the self-sufficiency rate of wheat in Korea is 1.7% (as of 2017), which is urgent for the cultivation and supply of Korean wheat for confectionary and baking.

    As the government diversifies its native wheat self-sufficiency policy, consumer demand for safe food and anti-aging industry policies, as well as interest in native wheat, increases. In addition, the change in health-focused awareness on all foods is increasing consumers’ expectations for gluten-free (Sanchez et al. 2002) and colored foods (Hoo & Choo 2005).

    Meanwhile, Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum, crippled wheat) wheat, which is known as a native species resource in Korea, has a semi-draft gene and is grown in Jinju area, Gyeongnam (Cho et al. 1980). At the National Institute of Crop Science, Kim (2012) conducted research on improving the quality and growing stability of domestic wheat. Heo et al. (2013) reported on the confectionary aptitude evaluation of domestic semi-draft wheat flour, and it was found to contain 9.5-10.5% of protein. This protein does not form a complete texture by swelling. Therefore, gluten substitutes such as gluten or guar gum were added to gain a texture similar to that of normal bread and to compensate for this.

    In addition, whole wheat flour-milled Anzunbaengi wheat contains a sizable amount of bioactive substances, such as anthocyanin and flavonoid and dietary fiber of bran. Neyrinck & Delzenne (2010) reported that whole wheat has an effect on immuno-stimulating activity, carrying functional, anticancer, antiviral, and anti-diabetic effects. Based on this, further effects of Korean wheat resources should be verified.

    Therefore, in this study, whole wheat flour bread containing five colors of herbs were prepared and the characteristics of products were analyzed according to their physicochemical and storage periods.

    Materials and Methods

    Ingredients of bread

    The Korean whole wheat flour, named Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) Korea native varieties, used in the main experiment contained 10-11% protein and 14-15% moisture content. The wheat was grown in Jinju, Gyeongnam province, was stored at room temperature (20±2°C), and was used for experiments. The strong flour utilized for the control was a product of the Dae Han Flour Co. Ltd. (Inchun, Korea), while other subsidiary materials were purchased and used in the market.

    Bread preparation

    The blending rate of bread was used by modifying the AACC (1980) method 10-10b as shown in Table 1. White pan bread was prepared as a control group and a test group. The control group used only strong flour. The test group was divided into A (white herbs mixture), B (yellow herbs mixture), C (black herbs mixture), D (blue herbs mixture), and E (red herbs mixture) by adding five-colored herbs to the Korean whole wheat flour as shown in Table 1. White bread was prepared through the straight dough method as shown in Fig. 1. The blender Maximat N-40S (G.L. Eberhardt GmbH, Grafelfing, Germany) was used. The fermentation conditions were 80±5% relative humidity, 27±2℃ temperature, and 90 minutes. After the fermentation was completed, the dough was punched, degassed, and divided. Following rounding, secondary fermentation was conducted for 20 minutes at room temperature, and then the wheat was molded into a pan. Tertiary fermentation was performed for 40 minutes in Fresh proofer. Electric deck oven (Daeyoung Bakery Co. Ltd. Seoul, Korea) was used to bake bread. The top and bottom temperatures of the oven were adjusted to 200±5℃ and 220±5℃, respectively. After baking for about 30 minutes, cooling at room temperature for 2 hours was used as a sample.

    pH of bread

    For the pH of the bread, a pH meter (TM 300 Series, Beckman Coulter Inc. Fullerto, USA) was used. 10 g of crumb was placed in a 250 mL beaker, mixed with 90 mL of distilled water, before the pH was measured. The average value measured three times is shown.

    Height of bread

    Loaf height was measured from the bottom by cutting the bread vertically at the highest part. The average value of three repeated measurements is shown.

    Chromaticity of bread

    Chromaticity was measured through the Minolta JS-555 (Minolta Camera Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan). Samples were made at 20x20x10 mm in width, length, and height across the crumb area. L, a, and b were measured for 3 days, and the average value was used. The L, a, and b values of the standard whiteboard were 95.91, 0.00, and 2.27, respectively.

    Water activity

    Water activity was measured by means of an AW meter (BT-RS1, Rotronicag, Bassersdorf, Swiss) while storing bread for 3 days. The sample was put into 3 g of a closed container, and the water activity value was measured three times and expressed as an average value.

    Measurement of texture

    The texture of bread was measured by Rheometer (CR-100D, Sun Scientific Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan). The adapter entry distance was adjusted to 10 mm and the maximum value of the sensing sense to 2 kg. Samples were made at 40x40x30 mm in width, length, and height for the crumb area. The hardness, springiness, and gumminess values were measured three times while being stored in an airtight plastic container for 3 days at room temperature.

    Observation of crumb

    A scanning electron microscope (S-3500N, Hitachi Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used to observe the bread crumbs. 10 g of the sample was vacuum-dried (2% water content) and plated (Au + Pd) for 60 seconds in an ion spotter (E-1010, Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). The acceleration voltage of the SEM was adjusted to 10 kV and observed at 100, 500, and 1,000 magnifications (Chabot et al. 1978).

    Statistical analysis

    Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA using statistical analysis program (Statistical Anaylsis System, SAAT 9.1, NC, USA). In addition, the significance test between each sample was used Duncan's multiple range test (SAS, 2004).

    Results and Discussion

    pH of bread

    The results of the pH analysis of the control group and the whole wheat flour test group are shown in Table 2. The pH of the control group ranged from 6.15±0.12 and that of the whole wheat flour test group ranged from 6.36±0.12 to 6.01±0.13. The difference between the test groups is due to the type of herb added (Tale 1). It is approximately 6.5 to 6.7 pH of the hub generally, with the bread dough reduced to below pH 6.0 at most in the fermentation process upon adding the herb. Compared with the control group, the overall pH of the whole wheat flour test group, except E (red), is slightly higher than that of the control group due to the properties of the herbal powder and low sugar content. According to Nakae (1983) and Jung et al. (2019), the pH is dropped by the carbon dioxide and organic acids generated by the sugar during the fermentation of the dough. In addition, Fujiyama (1984) reported that the pH starts at 6.0 after kneading and decreases to 4.9-5.5 after the second fermentation in the general baking process. Holmes and Honesey (1987), baking with a straight dough method, reported a decrease of 5.51-5.75 after baking. The experimental results showed similar values.

    Height of bread

    The height of the control bread was 15.5±1.1 cm and whole wheat flour test group was 13.8±0.9~ 14.9±1.0 cm. The shape is shown in Fig. 2. By product, the bread height was higher in the order of E (red), A (white), C (black), D (blue), and B (yellow). The whole wheat flour bread was slightly lacking in D (blue) and B (yellow) when compared to the control bread using the strong powder. The E (red), A (white), and C (black) test groups maintained a similar volume as the control, suggesting that the bread has a good texture and can be extended to the most delicious period.

    The results of this study are consistent with the report that protein content and additives such as Kim et al. (2012) affect volume and become bulky if gluten develops well and pore formation is sufficient.

    Chromaticity of bread

    The values of L, a, and b are shown in Table 3. In the L value, the control group ranged from 67.78±0.03 and the whole wheat flour test group ranged from 61.64±0.04 to 69.66±0.02. Significant differences were found between the control and whole wheat flour test groups. The difference of L value was confirmed according to the kind and particle size of the added herbs.

    The a values of the whole wheat flour test group were 3.21±0.01, 3.75±0.11, -0.99±0.02, 1.82±0.01, and 7.72±0.01, respectively. The a value of the control was 2.53±0.01, which was higher than that of the control except C (black) in the whole wheat flour test group. The flour of the milled rice grinders was darker than commercial flour, which was reported by Heo et al. (2012).

    In the study of bread using jasmine tea powder (Hwang et al. 2004) and the study of bread added with mug-wort powder (Jung, 2006), the L, a, and b values of crust were lower than those of the control. In addition, the crumb's L and a values decrease while its b value increases. The results were similar to that of the whole wheat flour test group study.

    Water activity

    The results of measuring water activity are shown in Table 4. On the first day, the water activity of the control was 0.968±0.01 and that of the whole wheat flour test group was 0.965±0.01, 0.962±0.01, 0.966±0.01, 0.956±0.02, and 0.956±0.01, respectively. The control showed lower water activity as the storage period elapsed (1-3 days). However, in the whole wheat flour test group, B (yellow), C (black), D (blue), and E (red) except for A (white) showed a tendency to increase slightly on the second day.

    This phenomenon is attributed to the difference in moisture retention and adsorption capacity of the added herbs. On the other hand, the water activity of the whole wheat flour test group for 3 days ranged from 0.945±0.03 to 0.957±0.01, which was higher than that of the control at 0.943±0.02. The water activity of the whole wheat flour test group was smaller than that of the control. Based on these results, it can be inferred that the whole wheat flour test group bread can maintain the softness of the product by delaying aging for about 3 days (Puhr & D’appoionia, 1992).

    Czuchajowska et al. (1989) reported that the water absorption rate and baking activity of bread dough tended to decrease as the water absorption rate decreased or as the baking time increased.

    Texture of bread

    The hardness results of the bread texture are shown in Fig. 3. The hardness values of the whole wheat flour test group stored a day were 186.86±4.81, 165.89±3.73, 189.71±3.32, 198.38±2.19, and 184.29±3.40 g/cm2, respectively, and the control was 138.84±3.72 g/cm2. Hardness tended to increase with the storage period in all bread samples.

    The increase in hardness was consistent with the results of Pomeranz et al. (1997), who reported that the gluten dilution effect was due to sugars and fiber. In addition, the increase in hardness value with the passage of time may be due to the particle size of the whole wheat flour powder and the type of herbs added.

    Springiness measurement results are shown in Fig. 4. On the first day, the springiness of the control group was 83.56±1.62% and a tendency to decrease rapidly with time was evident. The springiness of the whole wheat flour test group was as follows. A: 83.39±2.19%; B: 84.42±3.48%; C: 87.31±1.42%; D: 85.98±1.60%; and E: 85.50±1.31%.

    During the storage period, the springiness of the whole wheat flour test group decreased slightly on the second day and was similar to that of the first day or the third day. The springiness of the control group decreased rapidly with the storage period, but was not affected by the storage period between the whole wheat flour test groups.

    It may be assumed that the protein content of the whole wheat flour powder is low and thus there is no sharp decrease. Shin & Shin (2008) reported a tendency for the elasticity to decrease when 1-3% of cornus oil powder was added.

    The result of the gumminess value is shown in Fig. 5. The gumminess of the control group was 79.13±1.61 g and it decreased with time. The whole wheat flour test group showed a gumminess of 87.59±2.45 g for the A group, 82.57±2.29 g for the B group, 92.19±0.78 g for the C group, 98.71±0.39 g for the D group, and 102.06±2.95 g for the E group.

    Unlike the control, the gumminess of the whole wheat flour test group tended to increase gradually with the storage period. In the case of gumminess, the whole wheat flour test group tended to increase with the storage period due to the protein content of native whole wheat flour powder, and the particle size difference of the mixed-colored, mixed herbs and wheat flour.

    The gumminess of bread added with Gaza (Terminal chebula Retzius) was different from that in the study of Kim & Jeong (2009). It can be estimated as a difference depending on the chemical composition of the powder used as the material for baking.

    Scanning microscope observation

    After the bread was completely cooled, it was rapidly frozen, dried in vacuo, and measured by means of a scanning electron microscope (100x, 500x and 1,000x). In other words, the internal structure of the control group was spherical and elliptical, and the smooth and swollen starch particles had a network shape with denatured protein (Fig. 6).

    However, the whole tissue of the whole wheat flour test group was rough, the surface of the starch particles was densely concentrated in a round or oval shape, and the outline thereof was not clear. In addition, the degree of swelling and the internal cracking profile were clear as the change of the herb was added to the whole wheat flour.

    Maeda & Morita (2000) reported that starch particles of bakery dough were located around the gluten tissues with the formation of the extensible part, promoting expansion during fermentation, and changing well in baked bread tissues.

    Additionally, the nutritional characteristics of bread made by adding five-colored herb plants are expected to be supplemented with dietary fiber and various inorganic ingredients, which are easily deficient by milling.

    Acknowledgement

    This research is a result of the grant funding for the University of Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology in 2018-2020.

    Figures

    JALS-53-6-119_F1.gif

    Production process of white pan bread using whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) bread with herbs.

    JALS-53-6-119_F2.gif

    Shape of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs.

    The abbreviations (A, B, C, D, and E) are same as in Table 1.

    JALS-53-6-119_F3.gif

    Hardness of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs.

    The abbreviations (A, B, C, D, and E) are same as in Table 1.

    JALS-53-6-119_F4.gif

    Springiness of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs.

    The abbreviations (A, B, C, D, and E) are the same as in Table 1.

    JALS-53-6-119_F5.gif

    Gumminess of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs.

    The abbreviations (A, B, C, D, and E) are same as in Table 1.

    JALS-53-6-119_F6.gif

    Scanning electron micrograph of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs. The abbreviations (A, B, C, D, and E) are same as in Table 1.

    Tables

    Recipe for making white pan bread using whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour with herbs (Unit; % of flour basis)

    pH of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs

    Chromaticity of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs

    Water activity of white pan bread using whole wheat flour with herbs

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