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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.53 No.4 pp.103-111
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2019.53.4.103

White Pan Bread Dough Characteristics of Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) Whole Wheat Flour Added Herbs

Jung Hyun Gi1, Joung Yong Myeon2, No Il Hong3, Choi Jine Shang1*
1Department of Food Science, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju, 52725, Korea
2San Chung Medicinal Confectionery Co., Ltd. Food Institute, Sanchung, 52229, Korea
3Busan Institute of Baking, Busan, 48726, Korea
Corresponding author: Choi Jine Shang Tel: +82-10-6581-3275 Fax: +82-55-751-3279 E-mail: jschoi@gntech.ac.kr
February 12, 2019 May 14, 2019 May 29, 2019

Abstract


In the Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixture group, some herbs (A [white], B [yellow], C [black], D [blue], and E [red]) were added. The physicochemical properties were compared to the strong flour and whole wheat flour mixture groups. The dry gluten content of the control group (strong flour) was 13.5±0.4%, and the content in the whole wheat flour test group was slightly lower in value than the control group. The final viscosity, breakdown, and setback values of the dough were 248.4±0.8, 104.8±0.9, and 103.1±2.9 RVU, respectively. The breakdown was significantly different in the control and whole wheat flour groups. The setback value of the dough was increased by 30 RVU in the whole wheat flour test group compared to the control group by 103.1±2.9 RVU, but there was no significant difference between the test group samples. The consistency of the control dough was 500±10 FU, and the whole wheat flour test group was significantly increased to 585±10~599±10 FU, respectively. The absorption rate was about 2% higher in the whole flour test group than in the control group (66.2±0.3%). The pH of the control paste gradually decreased with fermentation time, and the results of whole wheat flour test group were similar (5.78±0.12~5.88±0.12). As the fermentation time increased, the volume of dough was increased and the result was slightly lower in the whole wheat flour test group than in the control group.



초록


    Introduction

    Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum, crippled wheat) is a domestic native species, which is a semi-dwarf gene and has a small-ear shape and is cultivated in the Jinju area. It has been discovered by Cho et al. (1980); however, studies on its genetic factors, breeding characteristics, cultivation environment, nutrients, functionalities, and processing potentials in confectionary and baking are not enough. Gallagher et al. (2004) reported that gluten-free processing products and dietary habits can contribute to the knowledge base on flour allergy and celiac disease in most countries with wheat stocks. The interest in rice has been increasing as grains replace wheat (Chang & Riu, 1998;Ju & Lee, 2006). Recently, research on native wheat has been undertaken by Kim (2012). Consumers’ interest in safe food and health has become a major concern, with herbs, rice, and gluten-free products becoming points of interest (Sanchez et al., 2002). In general, bread made from high-strength powder is formed by the vapor pressure of the gluten, which is a protein contained in the wheat, forming a network structure in the dough and baking it to form its volume. However, since native flour contains 9.5-10.5% protein, it does not form a full texture due to wheat protein swelling. For this reason, Heo et al. (2013) has been reported to control the strength and make a texture similar to bread to complement it.

    In this study, dough was made by adding herbal powder to the Anzunbaengi whole wheat flour. The characteristics of some dough were analyzed and used as basic data for baking information.

    Materials and Methods

    1 Materials

    The domestic native flour used in this experiment was purchased as raw material of crippled wheat (Anzunbaengi) whole wheat grown in Jinju, Korea and used as experimental material at a room temperature of 20℃. Baking ingredients including strong flour (Deahan miller co, Korea), skim milk (Seoul milk, Korea), salt (Hanju, Korea), butter (Lotte Sam Kang, Korea), yeast and improvement (SIB, Korea) were purchased from the market and used at 2017. As shown in Table 1, the herbs used were classified as A (white), B (yellow), C (black), D (blue), and E (red).

    2 Chemical contents analysis

    Moisture contents of whole wheat flour and wheat flour were measured using an infrared moisture meter (MB45, Ohaus, Leicester, UK). The dry gluten content of the protein was analyzed according to Glutomatic 2200 (Perten Instruments AB, Sweden) and the general component analysis according to the AOAC method (1984).

    3 Color difference

    Using the Hunter scale, the control and mixed test groups were evaluated for L (lightness), a (redness), and b (yellowness) values using a colorimeter (Minolta JS-555, Minolta Camera Co.). The average value was obtained by repeating this process five times.

    4 Gelatinization

    For the measurement of the gelatinization properties of the dough, a analyzer (Rapid Visco Analyzer, Newport Scientific Pty., Ltd., Warriewood NSW, Australia) by Deffenbaugh & Walker (1989) was used. 25 ml (0.1 ml) of distilled water was added to 3.5 g of the sample mixed with five kinds of medicinal herbs in the whole barrel which was placed in an aluminum container, and the mixture was uniformly stirred with a plastic rotary shaft. The mixture was stirred at a high speed for 1 minute in a rapid viscometer (RVA) adjusted to 50℃, heated to 95℃ while raising the temperature by 12℃ for 1 minute, maintained for 2.5 minutes, and cooled to 50℃. The average value was used to measure the retention initiation temperature, peak viscosity, peak viscosity time, holding strength, final viscosity, breakdown, and set back value, which are the lowest viscosity appearing after the peak point.

    5 Water absorption and stability

    Farinograph (M81044, Brabender Co., Ltd., Duisburg, Germany) was used for the determination of the sample uptake and stability, which were added to the control, high-fat flour, and mixed ointment. According to AACC (1990) method (54-21), 300 g of each of the five kinds of powders prepared by adding the herb to the control, wheat flour, and whole flour was used, and the absorbed amount until the center of the curve reached 500±10 BU. The dough temperature was maintained at 30.0±0.2℃. Based on the farinogram, the average value was used to measure the consistency and absorption rate of batter, dough forming time, stability, time break down or degree of softening, and tolerance index.

    6 pH of dough

    The pH of the dough was measured using a pH meter (Ø TM 300 Series, Beckman Coulter Inc., Fullerton, USA) according to the AACC (1990) method. As shown in Table 1, the control and the five raw materials were mixed in a blender to stabilize the dough with 100% gluten for about 30 minutes. Thereafter, 10 g of the dough was taken and placed in a 250 ml beaker, and 90 ml of distilled water was added thereto and uniformly mixed.

    7 Fermentation of dough

    The dough was fermented using Maximat N-40S (G. L. Eberhardt GmbH, Gräfelfing, Germany). The control and mixed herb supplementation samples (A, B, C, D, and E) were added and the gluten was developed in stage 1 for 3 min, stage 2 for 15 min, stage 3 for 3 min, and stage 2 for 2 min. After the finished dough was stabilized at room temperature for about 30 minutes, the control and samples A, B, C, D, and E were each divided into 20 g portions and the dough was well-pressed into a 100 ml cylinder. The fermentation state of the dough was measured at intervals of 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 90 minutes in the fermentation chamber at 38.0±2.0℃, with a relative humidity of 80.0±5.0%.

    8 Statistical analysis

    Statistical analysis (2000) was performed by ANOVA using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) statistical program. Duncan's multiple range test was used for the significance of each sample (p<0.05).

    Results and Discussion

    1 Chemical contents

    The water content of the control sample was 13.5±0.3%, that of sample A was 13.2±0.2%, that of sample B was 13.6±0.3%, that of sample C was 13.4±0.2%, that of sample D was 13.8±0.2%, and that of sample D was 13.6±0.3%. The ash content was measured as 0.4±0.1% for the control and 1.5±0.1% for the whole wheat flour. The reason for the 3~4 times higher ash content than the control was that the control was milled by removing the bran part through the tempering process, but the whole wheat flour was milled with a sand bar. The dry gluten content of the control was 13.5±0.1%, and that of the whole wheat flour was 10.5±0.1%. The protein content results were compared with those of domestic wheat varieties by Kang et al. (2010) and Heo et al. (2012). The native wheat showed the softness properties of the red wheat.

    2 Color difference

    Table 2 shows the results of the changes in the chromaticity of the whole wheat flour test group. Controls L, a, and b registered 89.28±0.01, 1.87±0.01, and 10.16±0.00, respectively. The lightness of the whole wheat flour group was 85.62±0.00~89.12±0.00, which was significantly different from that of the control group. The lightness value was especially lower in sample C (black). The yellowness of the control was 10.16±0.00, and the value of 12.69±0.01 was relatively high in group B treated with yellow herb. There was also a significant difference between the two samples. The redness in the control group was 1.87±0.01 and there was a slight difference from the results of the whole wheat flour test group. In the test group, C (black) and E (red) showed relatively high values of 2.88±0.00 and 2.77±0.01. The difference between the strong flour particles (55.44±0.60 um) and the whole wheat flour particles (112.07±3.10 um) was more than two fold. This is because it contains much tale in whole wheat flour, and it is presumed that it is darker in brightness and higher in redness and yellowing than flour milled in a medium type mill. In addition, Neyrinck & Delzenne (2010) report that the samples of whole wheat flour test group contain more bioactive substances such as anthocyanin, flavonoids, and dietary fiber than the control flour.

    3 Gelatinization

    Table 3 shows the results of the rapid visco analyzer measurement of the degree of gelatinization in the control and whole wheat flour test groups, respectively. That is, the initiation temperature of the dough was 66.9±0.4℃ in control and 88.9±0.4℃, 88.1±1.2℃, 86.1±0.5℃, 88.9±0.1℃, and 88.4±0.6℃ respectively in the whole wheat flour test group and 22℃ difference in the control group and two other groups. The initial pasting temperature of the whole wheat flour test group was measured to be about 22℃, which was significantly higher than the control group’s temperature. There was no significant difference except for black (C) in the whole wheat test group. Kim & Shin (2009) reported that the addition of grains with different grain sizes resulted in a high water-binding capacity, indicating that the enzyme in the wheat flour was relatively decreased while the viscosity increased due to the variation of the water absorption rate of the rice varieties. There was a significant difference between the control peak viscosity (250.1±1.0 RVU) and the low value of about 21~27 RVU in the whole wheat flour test group. The holding strength of the lowest viscosity after the peak was 145.4±1.9 RVU in the control group and 134.8±1.9, 138.7±0.8, 131.7±0.0, 136.2±1.1, and 133.8±1.5 RVU in the whole wheat flour test group, and there was a significant difference between the control group and whole wheat flour test group. The final viscosity and breakdown values of the control were 248.4±0.8 and 104.8±0.9 RVU, respectively, which were significantly different from those of the whole wheat flour test group. The setback value for predicting the aging progression rate was significantly increased by 30 RVU in the whole wheat flour test group compared with the control of 103.1±2.9 RVU. However, there was no difference between the samples of the whole wheat flour test group. The larger the setback value, the faster the aging speed can be estimated. In the whole wheat flour test group, the value was 133.3±0.8~136.5±1.9 RVU, which was higher than the control group’s (103.1±2.9 RVU). It was confirmed that the aging process was faster than in the control group.

    4 Dough characteristics

    The results obtained using farinograph for dough characteristics are shown in Table 4 and Fig. 1. The consistency of the control dough was 500±10 FU and the whole wheat flour test group was significantly increased to 585±10~599±10 FU. The two groups showed a significant difference. The water absorption rate of the control was 66.2±0.3%, while that of the whole wheat flour test group was slightly increased from 2.4 to 2.8%. The development time of the control dough was 3.45±0.12 min. Also, in the whole wheat flour test group, the range was 3.95±0.11~6.40±0.10 min. The stability of the control dough (17.85±0.18 min) was significantly higher than that of the whole wheat flour test group (5.40±0.11~7.80±0.10 min). The time breakdown of the control (13.0±1.4 sec) was different in the whole wheat flour test group ranging from 32.5±0.7 to 50.5±0.7 sec. The tolerance index of the control was about 620~800 MTI higher than that of the whole wheat flour test group, showing significant difference in all the test groups. The farinograph quality number was measured from the lowest (65.0±0.0) to the highest (200.0±0.0), and a significant difference was also observed in all groups.

    5 pH of dough

    The pH of the dough was measured at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after the dough was stabilized at room temperature for 30 minutes. The results are shown in Table 5. The pH of the control dough was 6.05±0.11, which was similar to that of the whole wheat flour test group (5.98±0.11~6.26±0.11). The pH of the dough 60 minutes elapsed was the lowest in the whole wheat flour test group to which the blue (D) herb was added, which is presumed to be caused by the dandelion and the leek powder. After 90 minutes, the pH of the control was 5.76±0.11. The whole wheat flour test group was in the range of 5.78±0.12~5.88±0.12, which is considered to be a buffering agent for the bread improver as the fermentation time has elapsed. In addition, the activity of the baking yeast was generally in the range of pH 4~6, whereas the pH range in this experiment was slightly higher than that of the added herb.

    6 Volume of dough

    Table 6 shows the results of the volume measurements of the dough during fermentation at 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min intervals. The volume increased with the fermentation time of dough. Compared with the volume of the control dough (16.0±2.1 ml) after 30 minutes of fermentation, the results were similar to those of the whole wheat flour test group (14.0±2.0~16.0±2.5 ml). After 60 min of fermentation, the volume of the whole wheat flour test group was 2.0-3.5 ml less than the control. After 90 minutes, the control was 53.0±3.5 ml, which was up to 6 ml more than the whole wheat flour test group. This difference in volume is judged by the influence of various mixed herbs added. The increase in the volume of the dough is consistent with the report by Lee et al. (2008) that the gas produced during fermentation is collected in the film and formed on the dough surface as the volume of the bread is increased later, resulting in larger pores and smoother texture. In addition, the protein content, protein type, and additive materials have the same effect on the volume ratio as in the case of Kim et al. (2012), which tests that the volume ratio increases when gluten is well-developed and pore formation is sufficiently performed.

    Figure

    JALS-53-4-103_F1.gif

    Farinogram profiles of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures. Abbreviations (A-E) are shown in Table 1.

    Table

    Formula of white pan bread dough (Unit; percent of flour basis)

    Color difference of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures

    RVA data of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures

    Farinogram parameters of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures

    pH of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures in white pan bread dough

    Volume of strong flour and Anzunbaengi (Triticum aestivum) whole wheat flour mixtures in white pan bread dough

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