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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.53 No.4 pp.61-68

Effect of Feed Selenium-lysine Supplementation on Milk Compositions and Serum Biochemical Indices in Saanen Dairy Goats

Tae-Il Kim1†, Dong-Hyun Lim1, Tai-Young Hur1, Seung-Min Ha1, Hyun-Jong Kim1, Seong-Min Park1, Ji-Hoo Park1, Sang-Bum Kim1, Ji-Hwan Lee1, Hyun-Joo Lim1, Jeong-Sung Jung2, Ha-Yeon Jeong3, Jay Lee3, Kwang-Seok Ki1, Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan1*
1Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, 31000, Korea
2Grassland and Forages Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan, 31000, Korea
3FT Cosmetic Co., Ltd, #1213, Ace-dongbaek-Tower, 16-4, Dongbaekjungang-ro, Giheung-gu, Yongin, 17015, Korea

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Corresponding author: Vijayakumar Mayakrishnan Tel: +82-41-580-3401 Fax: +82-41-580-3419 E-mail:
December 12, 2018 April 30, 2019 July 5, 2019


An experiment was carried out to assess the effect of feed selenium-lysine (Se-Lys) supplementation on milk compositions and serum biochemical indices in Saanen dairy goats in Korea. A total of twelve 36 months old Saanen lactating dairy goats (47±6.21 kg) fed the similar dry matter intake twice a day at 2% of BW (DMI) (10.9% moisture of concentrate and 19% moisture of roughage), milk yield (2.5 kg/d) and parity (2) were randomly selected and subjected for the present study, divided into two groups with six goats in each group. The goats in the control group received rice hulls (10 g/ day) only, and did not receive Se-Lys; goats in the treatment group were fed 0.06 g of Se-Lys with 10 g of rice hulls every day before feeding roughage for six weeks. The milk sample was collected every week, and its compositions were analyzed. The results of the present study showed that there is no significantly increased milk production in Se-Lys treated group goats when compared with control group goats. But, Se-Lys treatment significantly increased the milk protein content (3.98±0.16%), fat (3.72±0.27%), lactose (4.07±0.14%), total solids (12.51±0.28%) and urea (14.42±1.45 mg/dl) content as compared to the control group goats (p<0.05). The somatic cell counts (207,740±28.81 cells/ml) were significantly lower in the Se-Lys treated group than in the control group (p<0.05). Also, the results of the current study showed that supplementation of Se-Lys were significantly decreased the blood biochemical indices of IL-6 (34.34±6.04 pg/ml), TNT-α (0.56±0.22 ng/ml), MDA (5.07±1.03 ng/ml), GPx-1 (9.07±5.17 ng/ml), sCD4 (2.64±1.02 ng/ml) and sCD8 (5.08±2.08 ng/ml) level when compared with without addition of Se-Lys group dairy goats (p<0.05). On the other hand, the selenoprotein P (1,580.18±127.62 ng/ml) level was significantly higher in Se-Lys supplemented group than in the control group (p<0.05). Based on the study results, it was concluded that feed Se-Lys supplementation may improve milk yield with positively improved protein, fat, lactose, total solids, urea content, and biochemical indices without negative effects on milk production traits.



    Dietary antioxidants are the substances that significantly reduce the adverse effects of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species or both on normal physiological functions in humans. It has greater beneficial effects in including free radical scavenging, meat quality development, consumer health, and controlling certain diseases, and it is widely used as feed additives for animal production (Lee et al., 2017). Furthermore, extensive of importance has been found on intramuscular fat deposition and modification of fatty acid profile by demanding feeding strategies and dietary inclusion of convinced fat, for the development of meat quality (Lauridsen et al., 1999;Song et al., 2000). However, the augmented intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile increased the lipid peroxidation in meat products. Therefore, dietary antioxidants are essential in producing high-quality livestock products, since dietary antioxidant are able protect lipid peroxidation, extend the colour stability of meat products and provide health benefits to both animal and human (Surai, 2002).

    Among antioxidants, selenium (Se) plays an important role in the enzymatic defense mechanism against oxidative stress in tissues. A number of studies have reported the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of Se on the prevention of biological peroxidation and many diseases in animal. The outcome of Se deficiency may be slight or uncertain in some animals and including milk production lessen, immune deficiency, mammary gland disorders, reproductive failure and nutritional muscular dystrophy (Wichtel, 1998). Therefore, dietary supplementation of Se to animal is important, especially in the countries where the poor content of trace elements in soils. Also, Se is a vital source for normal growth and maintenance in animal and human around the world, and much is mysterious about their nutritional requirements. It is generally difficult to apply the concept of the standard or reference values range for the minerals in livestock due to the remarkable changes in supplementation and other management circumstance on distinct production applications (Allaway & Hodgson, 1964;National Research Council, 1983). Veterinarians and nutritionists are searching more information about Se level on the normal goats to determine the sufficiency of supplementation level for the goat health care. Dietary supplementation guidelines of Se is depended upon the Se level in the external supplementation such as forage and feeding system, age, production categories and other management factors. Therefore, the blood reference values determination in animals will be useful for the researchers, veterinarian, nutritionist and producers (McComb et al., 2010).

    Since global environmental safety and economic development, researchers have more attention to find nutritional strategies which can reduce nitrogen losses more effectively from livestock production (Kamran et al., 2010). Despite, minimal amount of crude protein intake has been important crisis in regions with insufficient protein resources. However, dietary protein of the predominant livestock is mainly depends on amino acid digestion and absorption. In light of this, Mostly limited amino acids (AA) supplementation may be potential nutritional strategies for relieve negative effects on dietary protein supply. Recent studies have demonstrated that low crude protein diets supplemented with AA showed the same performance as those supplemented adequate crude protein (Leonardi et al., 2003;Zhang et al., 2013).

    Lysine is a second limiting amino acids, plays an important role in building block for protein and growth performance, but body cannot synthesis it. So, animal and human needed to get it from food.

    Although, a number of study has been done for calculating Lys needed is available, there are considerable variations due to several factors like genotype, gender, balance with other limiting and non-limiting amino acids, Also, Selenium and Lysine are well-known dietary supplements and play an important role in rumen development, but very little information exists in dairy sectors. In fact, previous report also demonstrated the dietary supplementation of Se-Vit E improved the milk fat yield and percentage in dairy cow (Liu et al., 2008); also Lacetera et al. (1999) reported that Se-vit E enhanced milk production in Sardinian sheep. However, little information’s are available on the applications of Se to Korean native goats. But there is no study on complex of selenium-lysine effects on growth performance of animals. Yet, it remains to be unclear for the Saanen dairy goats how Se-Lys performs as limiting factors. Distinguishing the above facts, the current study was conducted to explore the effects of Se-Lys supplementation on milk compositions, serum biochemical indices and lipid peroxidation level in Saanen dairy goats.

    Materials and Methods

    1 Preparation of Se-Lys

    Based on our previous protocol, the Se-Lys complex was made by a total of 0.89% of Se, and 0.99% of Lys were coated with 98.15% PFAD (palm fatty acid distillate) to prepare Se-Lys (0.024 ppm).

    2 Experimental designs

    A total of 12 high yielding second lactating Saanen dairy goats were selected and used with an initial body weight of 47±6.21 kg, animals were maintained, and the study was conducted at the Natural goat farm, Goryum-ri, Cheongbuk-myeon, Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi-do, Korea from October 2016 to December 2016. The experimental design was evaluated and approved by the animal testing ethics committee of the National Institute of Animal Science, Jeonju, Korea. The goats were offered a basal concentrate diet at 2% of BW and roughage and water was available ad libitum to all goats for six wk-adjustment periods. After adaptation of goats (47±6.21 kg) were housed in steel cages with six animals per cage and allotted to two groups consisting of the control (CON) (n=6), the basal diet plus selenium-lysine mixture (n=6) (0.86% sodium selenite and 0.99% lysine). After feeding basal diet, all goats were allowed to graze outdoor for 3 h/d on a various kind of grass such as alfalfa-38%, timothy-30%, oat -30% and tall fescue-2%. The basal diet was a ground corn-based commercial diet which contained DMI (10.9% moisture of concentrate and 19% moisture of roughage), 13.86% crude protein (CP), 3.18% crude fat (CF), 6.2% crude fibre (CF), 0.83% Ca, 0.55% P, and 0.15 ppm Se and rice straw contained 3.48% CP, 29.88% CF, 0.2% Ca, and 0.1% P. All goats were fed the corresponding concentrate diets twice a day at 2% of BW and rice straw ad libitum during a 6 wk experimental period. Body weight was measured on the initial and final days of the experiment.

    3 Milk and blood collection

    Milk sample was collected once in a week, at the end of the study period, 10 ml of blood was collected from all goats via jugular venipuncture into Becton Dickinson Vacutainer CAT Plus REF 367896 (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) heparin tubes under the supervision of a veterinarian. Blood samples were then centrifuged at 3000 g for 15 min to separate the serum. The collected milk and serum was stored at -20℃ until further analysis.

    4 Milk composition and serum biochemical analysis

    At the end of experimental period, the milk compositions and serum biochemical indices were analysed. Milk compositions of protein, fat, lactose, total solids and urea were analysed by a Delta Combi- Scope FTIR 300, Kelvinlaan, Drachten, Netherlands. Serum biochemical indices including interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), soluble CD4 (sCD4), soluble CD8 (sCD8) and selenoprotein P (SelP) were assayed by an Auto humalyzer 900 S plus (Human GmbH, Germany) using their corresponding kits.

    5 Statistical analysis

    The obtained data were analyzed using the SAS System for Windows (release 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Results are presented using means and standard error of the mean. Mean differences between treatments were determined by the t- test at p<0.05.

    Results and Discussion

    1 Efficacy of Se-Lys supplementation on milk production and its compositions

    At the end of the experimental period, the supplementation of Se-Lys not significantly increased milk production (data not shown), but extensively increased the level of milk protein content (3.98±0.16%), fat (3.72±0.27%), lactose (4.07±0.14%), total solids (12.51±0.28%) and urea (14.42±1.45), and decreased somatic cell count (207740±28.81 cell/ml) when compared with control group (p<0.05) goats (Table 1). Raw milk yield was not significantly higher in Se-Lys treated group goats as compared to control group goats. But, milk production was ranged between 1.5 to 3.0 kg/day/goat in control and Se-Lys treatment respectively. The result of the present study

    concordance with findings of Liu et al. (2008) who reported that fed diet supplemented with Se-VitE increased milk yield. Petrera et al. (2009) also reported that fed diet supplementation with selenium derived from Na-selenite or Se-yeast increased the milk yield in Saanen dairy goats. However, these significant differences can be attributed to goat breed. Milk fat and protein content were significantly different between the two groups. Both milk fat and protein percentage were increased considerably in Se-Lys treated group Saanen goats when compared to control group goats. The results of the present study was confirms with the previous study who reported that when diet, where supplemented with Se-VitE increased the milk fat and protein level in dairy cattle (Calamari et al., 2010), goats (Pechova et al., 2008), and ewes (Lacetera et al., 1999). Indeed, along with the previous study, our study results exhibited that Se-Lys was capable of reducing the extent of diet-induced milk fat depression. This study showed the positive effects of Se-Lys supplementation on milk yield and milk fat it may be due to better utilization of Se-Lys complex. These changes in the milk compositions are one of the important markers used to characterize its ability to produce cheese (Lee et al., 2001). So, this Se-Lys induced to produce more concentrated milk by Saanen dairy goats possibly has an advantage for the production of cheese. The milk lactose and urea level were significantly increased in goats fed Se-Lys diet as compared with control goats (p<0.05). Milk urea level is an important indicator for the utilization of protein and energy in ruminants. Supplemented diet with Se-Lys leads to reduce the milk urea N level when compared with control goats, which reflect the enhanced efficiency of nutrient consumption. Lee et al. (2001) described that low crude protein supplementation increases the blood urea N and that’s lead to increase aspartate aminotransferase level which increases liver work and also increase milk urea N level, while fed high crude protein diet supplementation lowered the blood and milk urea N level.

    level. The own author study conducted on Saanen dairy goats exhibited an enhanced milk protein, fat, total solids and milk urea and diminished somatic cell count in goats supplemented with Se-Lys compared with control goats. The current study result was agreed with Bagnicka et al. (2014) who previously reported that diet supplemented with organic selenium increased the milk components as compared with goat fed with sodium selenite. However, the majority of the results achieved from the short-term study period shows the amount of organic selenium supplementation increased the milk yield, milk compositions (Gievens et al., 2004;Calamari et al., 2011). Also, these results of the studies were performed on whether Se added to the diet in the form of Se-yeast influence the milk yield and their compositions compared with sodium selenite and these Se-yeast influences the more effective way the increase of the content of this microelement in goat milk (Pechova et al., 2007). Gresakova et al. (2013) previously reported that diet supplemented with Se-yeast to the calves significantly increased the microelements content in all the tissues when compared with a diet supplemented equivalent amount with sodium selenite. Kachue et al. (2013) also reported that diet supplemented with seleniummethionine (Se-Met) or sodium selenite to the dairy goats in the last stage of pregnancy had a higher content of the microelement in colostrum. Moreover, the study results of the Petrera et al. (2009) exhibited the appropriate level of the selenium, and Se-yeast supplementation can increase the microelement content in milk.

    2 Efficacy of Se-Lys supplementation on serum biochemical indices

    Current study results showed that Se-Lys diet supplemented group goats exhibited the lowered level of oxidative stress marker (MDA) and antioxidant (GPx) level as compared with a non-Se-Lys diet supplemented group goats (Table 2). A number of study has been evidenced that oxidative stress had a negative correlation on the antioxidant system, and antioxidant had a positive relationship on fertility biomarkers. MDA is the end product of the lipid peroxidation, and therefore MDA level is considered a biomarker of oxidative stress (Castillo et al., 2005). There are only a few reports on Se diet supplementation in influence the GPx level in serum of dairy cow blood which plays an essential role in maintaining the oxidative status on the optimal level. Liu et al. (2008) reported that 0.3 mg of Se/kg diet supplementation and 10000 IU/cow/d vitamin E influences the GPx activity in cow blood. Observations of the this study are agreed with Wang & Xu (2008) who previously reported that Se addition with yeast resulted in a lowered level of GPx activity. But, some study result showed the no difference in GPx activity when Se diet supplementation to the dairy cows. GPx is one of the enzymatic antioxidants plays a significant role in the antioxidant defense system in protecting the cells from oxidative stress. Some of the study results demonstrated the increased level of GPx activity in serum of Se-sodium selenite diet supplemented dairy cows as compared with inorganic Se diet supplemented dairy cows (Pavlata et al., 2011).

    Among the study results, diet supplementation with Se-Lys had lower the plasma level of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, and TNF-α concentration (p<0.05) when compared to the control goats (Table 2). The IL-6 change the immune reaction to the initiation of detrimental infection and damage, and TNF-α is a proinflammatory cytokine and produced from macrophages and monocytes, its play an essential role in modulation of immune response to the initiation of detrimental infection and damage (Banos et al., 2013). The decreased level of IL-6 and TNF-α indicates that the dietary supplementation of Se-Lys may improve the immune functions of the Saanen dairy goats. The selenoprotein level was increased in Se-Lys supplemented group when compared to control group. The sCD4 and sCD8 are important subsets of T lymphocytes, and their quantity in plasma is widely accepted indicators of immune status. Therefore in this study, we evaluated whether Se-Lys dietary supplementation enhance or decrease the immune status via measuring their concentration in plasma of Saanen dairy goats. The result of the present study showed the reduced plasma sCD4, and sCD8 level (Table 2) in Se-Lys supplemented goats as compared to the control goats (p<0.05), were indicated that the Se-Lys might improve the immune functions of the Saanen dairy goats by two ways. First, the improper roles of the immune cells are improved due to the reduction of negative energy balance (Lima et al., 2011). Second, the increased antioxidant capacity may alleviate oxidative damage to immune cells. The results of the present study were supported by Osorio et al. (2013) who previously reported that rumen-protected methionine (RPM) improved the immune function in postpartum cows.



    Effect of Se-Lys supplementation on milk components in Saanen dairy goats. Values are least squares means for each experimental group. Error bars represent mean±pooled SEM. a,bValues with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05) between groups

    Effect of Se-Lys supplementation on serum biochemical indices in Saanen dairy goats. Values are least squares means for each experimental group. Error bars represent mean±pooled SEM. a,bValues with different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05) between groups


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