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ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.52 No.1 pp.53-60
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2018.52.1.53

Effects of Freeze Dried Placenta Supplementation in Pregnant Sows on Reproductive Performance, Colostrum Biochemical Composition and Piglet Growth Rate

Kondreddy Eswar Reddy1, Hyun Jung Jung1, Dong Woon Kim1, Kyo Ho Cho2, Sung Back Cho3, Sang Ho Kim4, Jin Young Jeong1, Sung Dae Lee1*
1Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Wanju, 55365, Korea
2Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan, 31000, Korea
3Animal Environment Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Wanju, 55365, Korea
4Poultry Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Pyeongchang, 25342, Korea
Corresponding author: Sung Dae Lee +82-63-238-7454+82-63-238-7494leesd@korea.kr
July 6, 2017 January 2, 2018 February 1, 2018

Abstract


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation on reproductive performance, colostrum and plasma biochemical composition in pregnant sows. Eleven Landrace × Large white sows were fed with corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with or without 1% freeze dried placenta powder from 10 days before their expected farrowing dates until 10 days postpartum. The colostrum protein content was significantly higher(P=0.043) in the treatment group than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the immunoglobulin G(IgG) concentration in the colostrum was significantly higher(P=0.004) in the treatment. In day 25 piglets plasma, the IgG concentration was higher(P=0.184) in the treatment than the control. The mortality rate was lower(P=0.102), and the piglet weight gain was higher(P=0.35) in the treated group. Overall, the treatment group showed greater levels of protein and IgG concentration in the colostrum, when compared to control group. Therefore, the freeze dried placenta supplementation on pregnant sows can enhance its colostrum composition, hence decrease the mortality and increase the growth rate of piglets.



초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ007473201003

    Introduction

    The placenta is a temporary organ that provides the fetus with nutrients and oxygen, and helps protect the fetus from environmental threats. It is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are transported between maternal and fetal systems during the gestation period. Moreover, the placenta produces hormones and bioactive peptides and allows the uptake of vitamins and minerals, which supports the growth, development, and the metabolism of the fetus(Conley & Mason, 1990; Ogren & Talamantes, 1994; Anthony et al., 1995; Togashi et al., 2002). According to Togashi et al.(2002), the placenta also acts as a reservoir of cytokines, hormones, enzymes, growth factors, bioactive peptides, vitamins and minerals. However, placentas have often been disposed since pig farmers believe that placenta-fed animals might be at risk of pathogenic bacterial infection, even though no report has confirmed its existence.

    Placental supplementation induces is one of the most traditional oriental medicines for humans in China and Korea. For several years, this strategy has also been used in animals. According to Sabapatha et al.(2006), placental supplementation induced a significant nitric oxide production, which is an essential cellular mediator for tissue repair. It is a rich source of bioactive molecules and contains many uncharacterized compounds that support various bioactivities involved in inhibition or delay of aging, inflammation, sunburn, mutagenicity, anaphylaxis, and oxidation(Kim et al., 2003). The pig placenta is very similar to the human placenta and is used as a source of biomedical materials. Freeze-dried pig placentas contain equal or, in certain conditions, higher nutritive properties than human placenta(Jang et al., 2007).

    On the other hand, sows fed with fresh placentas have shown to increase protein, glucose, and IgG levels in their milk(Lee et al., 2006a,b). Fresh placentas may also change piglet plasma parameters and growth rate via the sow’s milk(Lee et al., 2006a,b). Sow colostrum provides the newborn piglet with nutrients and immune factors necessary for growth and development. The newborn piglet is therefore reliant on immunoglobulin G(IgG) transferred from the colostrum for humoral immune protection until its own immune system has sufficiently matured to respond to foreign antigens(Gaskins et al., 1995; Rooke & Bland, 2002). The concentrations of IgG in the plasma of piglets after birth are positively correlated with survival(Hendrix et al., 1976), and dead piglets have been shown to have lower serum IgG levels as compared to surviving piglets(Klobasa et al., 1981; Drew & Owens, 1988).

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation in pregnant sows, specifically on reproductive performance, colostrum, milk at day 3 postpartum, and plasma biochemical composition. The piglet’s mortality and growth rates were also observed.

    Materials and methods

    1. Experimental animals and diets

    A total of 11 Landrace × Large White sows(first parity) were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets(Table 1) with or without supplementation of 1% freeze dried placenta powder(Table 2), from 10 days before their expected farrowing dates until 10 days postpartum. All nutrient requirements were met or exceeded based on the National Research Council(NRC, 2012) standards for sows. Placenta powder was prepared by freeze drying(Lyoph-Pride 10R; Ilshinbiobase Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea). During pregnancy, the experimental animals were housed in individual gestation crates at an enclosed facility with temperatures averaging 23±1℃. 10 days before farrowing, the sows were moved to farrowing pens under an automatic environmental control system. The sows received 2.4 kg of feed daily from the beginning of the experiment until 1 day before farrowing. Upon farrowing, they were initially fed 1.2 kg of feed, and then 0.32 kg of feed cumulatively added in each subsequent day until 7 days postpartum. After 7 days postpartum, the sows were fed 3.4 kg/day of feed and were supplied with an additional 0.2 kg/day of feed per piglet. The sows were fed with this diet at 08:00 and 15:00 and were allowed ad libitum access to water from a nipple drinker during the experiment. All piglets were supplied with creep feed(Crude protein 22%, Crude fat 4%, Nitrogen free extract 88%, Iron 100 mg/kg) from the 10th day after birth and were allowed ad libitum access to water from a nipple drinker. Animal care was given in accordance to the care and use of laboratory animals by the National Institute of Animal Science, Animal Care Committee of Korea.

    2. Blood, colostrum and milk sampling

    Blood samples were collected from the ear veins of the sows at day 0 postpartum and from the vena cava of 4 similar-sized piglets per treatment group(2 males and 2 females/pen) at 25 days after birth. Blood samples were centrifuged at 2,000 × g for 15 min at 4℃ to separate the plasma and were stored at 80℃ until assayed. The colostrum was obtained within 3h postpartum and milk was obtained at day 3 postpartum and stored at -80℃ until assayed.

    3. Colostrum, milk and plasma biochemical analyses

    The chemical compositions, including dry matter, protein, fat, and lactose content in the colostrum and milk, at day 3 postpartum were analyzed using a LactoScope automatic analyzer(Delta Inst., Drachten, Netherlands). Biochemical parameters, including glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, and triglyceride in plasma were analyzed using an automatic photometer (Hitachi 7180, Tokyo, Japan). IgG concentration was measured with a porcine IgG kit(ECOS Inst., Miyagi, Japan).

    4. Reproductive performance and growth rate

    The reproductive performance of sows, including the total number of piglets born per litter, number of suckled piglets per litter, number of weaned piglets per litter, and piglet mortality rate was investigated from day 0 to day 25 postpartum. The piglets from both experimental groups were weighed at day 0 and 25 postpartum. The average daily weight gain of the piglets was calculated, and the average piglet weight per litter was used for statistical analysis.

    5. Statistical analysis

    Statistical analyses were conducted using the student’s t-test(SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Significant differences between treatment groups were separated using the least square mean. Results are presented as mean and pooled standard error.

    Results

    1. Chemical composition of colostrum and milk

    The effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation in pregnant sows on the chemical compositions of colostrum and milk at day 3 postpartum are shown in Table 3. In the colostrum, the protein content was significantly higher(P=0.043) in the treatment group than in the control group. However, there were no significant differences observed on the other chemical parameters between the treatment and control groups. There were also no significant differences observed on the chemical parameters between the treatment and control groups in milk at day 3 postpartum.

    2. Biochemical parameters in sow plasma

    The effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation on biochemical parameters in the sow plasma at day 0 postpartum and piglet plasma at 25 days after birth are presented in Table 4. In the sow plasma at day 0 postpartum, the biochemical parameters including glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, and triglyceride levels, did not differ significantly between the treatment and control groups. In the piglet plasma at 25 days after birth, glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, and triglyceride levels also did not differ significantly between the control and treatment groups.

    3. IgG levels in sow plasma, colostrum, milk and piglet plasma

    The effects of freeze dried placenta supplementation on IgG levels in the sow plasma at day 0 postpartum; colostrum; milk at day 3 postpartum; and piglet plasma at 25 days after birth are shown in Table 5. In the sow plasma at day 0 postpartum, IgG concentration did not differ significantly between the control and treatment groups. In contrast, the colostrum, IgG concentration was significantly higher(P=0.004) in the treatment group than in the control group. In the milk at day 3 postpartum, the IgG concentration did not differ significantly between the treatment and control groups. Similarly, in the piglet plasma at 25 days after birth, the IgG concentration did not differ significantly between the control and treatment groups, though it was observed to be higher in the treatment group.

    4. Reproductive performance of sows and the growth rate of piglets

    The effects of placenta supplementation on reproductive performance and the growth rate of piglets are shown in Table 6. The reproductive performance, which includes the total number of piglets born per litter, the number of suckled piglets per litter, the number of weaned piglets per litter, and piglet mortality rate, did not differ significantly between the treatment and control groups. Mortality rate tended to be lower(P=0.102) in the treatment group than control. With respect to the growth rates of piglets, the piglet weight at day 0 and 25 did not differ significantly between the control and treatment groups. However, the piglet weight gain per day was numerically greater(P=0.35) in placenta treatment group when compared to control group.

    Discussion

    In this study, the colostrum protein content was observed to be higher in the treatment group than in the control group. This was similar in the previous studies reported by Lee et al.(2006)a and by Song et al.(2008) that the protein content was increased in sows’ colostrum through the feeding of fresh placentas. On day 3 postpartum, the sow’s milk did not show significant differences in chemical composition between the control and treatment groups. This might be that the composition of sow’s milk is based on their diet composition(Mahan et al., 1971).

    At day 0 postpartum, sow’s colostrum IgG concentration was significantly higher in the placenta treatment group in the current study. Similar results were observed from the previous studies(Lee et al., 2006a; Song et al., 2008). According to Klobasa & Butler(1987), the protein content in the colostrum is based on IgG levels, as IgG accounts for almost 80% of the total protein content in the colostrum. According to Rooke & Bland(2002), increased IgG concentrations in colostrum resulted in increased IgG concentrations in piglet plasma, which is consistent with the results of this study. Hence, the IgG contents of the colostrum and piglet plasma were higher in the treatment group than in the control group due to the change in the protein composition of the sow colostrum caused by the supplementation of freeze dried placenta powder to pregnant sows.

    The piglet mortality rate was numerically lower in the treatment group than in the control group. Also, the daily weight gain tended to be higher in the treatment group in our study. Lee et al.(2006)c reported that feeding placentas to sows affected its milk composition; the protein content was increased in the colostrum, increasing their piglets’ growth rate. The placenta, which contains many kinds of hormones(progestins, estrogens, etc.) and biologically active substances, might have improved the physiological functions of the sow, consequently increasing the growth rate of their piglets.

    New-born piglets receive antibodies from the sow’s colostrum and milk(Coffey et al., 1982). The immunoglobulin in colostrum are quickly taken up by non-specific pinocytosis into the enterocytes of the small intestines of newborn piglets and localized in vacuoles(Payne & Marsh, 1962; Clarke & Hardy, 1971). Therefore, the piglet’s growth rate can be improved and mortality rate can be decreased by enhancing the IgG concentration in colostrum through the supplementation of freeze dried placenta powder.

    Conclusion

    Pregnant sows fed with freeze dried placenta powder had improved colostrum composition, consequently improving the growth rate and decreasing the mortality rate of their piglets. Hence, if applied by swine farmers, lesser mortality and higher the growth rates of piglets may be attained.

    Acknowledgment

    This work was carried out with the support of the Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development(Project No. PJ00747320 1003), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

    Figure

    Table

    Feed ingredients and chemical composition of the experimental diets

    aSupplied per kg premix feed concentrations: Diastase 10 g, Dry yeast 20 g, Ponciruc trifoliate rafin 5.5 g, Gentiana 2.0 g, Scopolia extract 0.5 g, Calcium lactate 2.0 g, Calcium carbonate 30.0 g
    bThe values supplied per kg premix feed concentrations: Vit A 5,000,000 IU, Vit D3 1,000,000 IU, Vit E 1,000 mg, Vit B1 150 mg, Vit B2 300 mg, Vit B12 1,500 mg, Niacin amide 1,500 mg, DL-calcium pantothenate 1,000 mg, Folic acid 200 mg, Vit H 10 mg, Choline chloride 2,000 mg, Mn 3,800 mg, Zn 1,500 mg, Fe 4000 mg, Cu 500 mg, I 250 mg, Co 100 mg, Mg 200 mg.

    Chemical composition of freeze dried placenta powder and experimental diets

    Effect of supplementation with freeze dried placenta on sow colostrum composition and milk composition at day 3 postpartum

    Effect of supplementation with freeze dried placenta on biochemical composition of plasma in sows and piglets

    Effect of supplementation with freeze dried placenta on immunoglobulin G concentration(mg/mL) in sow and piglet plasma and colostrum and milk

    Effects of supplementation with freeze dried placenta on reproductive performance and growth rate of piglets

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