Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1598-5504(Print)
ISSN : 2383-8272(Online)
Journal of Agriculture & Life Science Vol.50 No.5 pp.103-110
DOI : https://doi.org/10.14397/jals.2016.50.5.103

Influence of Digital Music on Chemical Properties in Red Leaf Lettuce

Ye-Seong Kang, Seong-Heon Kim, Chan-Seok Ryu*
1Division of Agro-System Engineering, Gyeongsang National University(Institute of Agriculture & Life Science), Jinju, 52828, Korea
Corresponding author: Chan-Seok Ryu +82-55-772-1897+82-55-772-1899ryucs@gnu.ac.kr
May 25, 2016 September 9, 2016 October 6, 2016

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate alteration of chemical properties in red leaf lettuces(Lactuca sativa L.) exposed to digital music every day. The red leaf lettuces were cultivated in two hydroponic systems composed of two layers. In the first experiment, the red leaf lettuces with treatment were exposed to the digital music, while the lettuces under control condition were not exposed to the digital music. At harvest(6 weeks after planting), fresh weight and chlorophyll content were measured and compared the treatment with the control group. Subsequently, red leaf lettuces of the next experiment were compared to fresh weight, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content during different vegetation growth stages(4 weeks and 6 weeks after planting). The comparison of data for all experiment was also divided into upper and lower parts because of the difference of temperature in hydroponic systems. As a results, fresh weight and anthocyanin of the red leaf lettuces might be influenced by the difference of temperature variations. Chlorophyll of the red leaf lettuces was not easily influenced by digital music and difference of temperature. It was also shown that ascorbic acid as inactive molecule was not easily influenced by physical response like music.


초록


    Gyeongsang National University
    RPP-2013-005

    Introduction

    It has an influence to psychological and physiological reaction of human to hear music of the instinct active since the beginning of humankind. Currently, it is used to raise interesting of public through pleasant sound or fear at much media. As using such sounds, the media can easily attract public with abundant emotions. In livestock industry, it is known that productivity of livestock is increased by using music from media.

    However, though the public believe the fact that human and livestock is influenced by music, most of the public don't also believe or know the fact that the plant is also influenced by music because the plant not hear the music through auditory organ. How does the plant hear the music? Unlike the human and livestock can hear music through auditory organ, the plant body respond to sound wave transmitted through air instead of hearing music. The sound wave vibrates cell wall of the plant body and is further transmitted to cell membrane and cytoplasm(Lee et al., 1997). As a result, cell have more movement than previous by electrical response caused by physical response. The movement has an influence to biological functions such as facilitating metabolism and increasing tolerance(Hassanien et al., 2014). It has not only such positive effects, but also help biological activity increase oxygen uptake and ATP(adenosine triphosphate) emitting energy by hydrolysis(Qin et al., 2003). Also, it increase absorbtion of fertilizer because the sound wave open stoma on back of leaf and likewise help plant produce more ATP(Heo et al., 2012). However, if electrical response should constantly occur to plant in evening not to produce energy, the plants of mountain area will extinct by the constant stress. the plant can protects for oneself under the constant stress by ability to separate direct and indirect response(Lee et al., 1997).

    As each human prefer different kind of music according to a favorite and emotion condition, similarly the plants differ from favoring frequency of the music each other according to kind of the plant as well. The music of high frequency like rock has negatively an influences to most of the plants regardless of kind (Lee et al., 2002). When pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) each exposed to Beethoven and rock music at the united states in 1968, Dorothy Retallack founded speaker covered by vines of pumpkin exposed to Beethoven music, but exposed to rock music grew toward the other side of speaker(Lee et al., 1997). When soybean(Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was also evaluated to the same means, it exposed to classic music had higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic efficiency than rock music(Heo et al., 2012). Acquainting positive effect of music, Dan Carlson at university of minnesota developed "Sonic Bloom" combined as classic music and was supplied in 30 nations. Rural Development Administration at Republic of Korea also developed "Green Music" at the end of the various studies and was supplied(Lee et al., 2002).

    However, those of audio frequency can lead worker to be stressed, which also near residents. As means to overcome the drawback, various plants were studied using ultrasonic wave of non-audio frequency. The ultrasonic wave was also influenced by alteration of cell and organization of the plant like music of audio frequency. To prove the effect, Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) and Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were exposed to sonic wave of 20 kHz and "Green Music", respectively. As a result, Polyamine content was different by kind of plants and sound(Qin et al., 2003).

    Many studies had observed alteration in the plants using the analog music of the audio frequency and ultrasonic wave, but currently it has not nearly been conducted to observe alteration in plants using digital music used by most of the public. The digital music is typically compact disc(CD) and moving picture experts group audio layer-3(mp3). Unlike long playing(LP) of the analog music stored to continuous frequency directly playing instrument, the CD is stored to discontinuous frequency. After eliminating sound in non-awareness area of music using lossy compression, the mp3 eliminate sound less than minimum audio frequency in extra area once more. When the chinese cabbage was exposed to each of the LP and CD music(Kim, 2008) observed gibberellin content facilitating germination and growth of plant. As a result, that exposed to digital music had lower content than analog music.

    This study observed alteration of chemical properties in red leaf lettuce using digital music made by eliminating and compressing analog music.

    Materials and methods

    1.Cultivation condition

    Red leaf lettuce(Lactuca sativa I., cv. ‘Jarang seed’, Mirae seed, Republic of Korea) seeds were germinated and grown in plastic cell trays. Two-week-old seedlings were transplanted into two hydroponic systems(PMF-TC80, 595 mm x 515 mm x 850 mm, Parus, Republic of Korea) which were composed of two layers. The light condition in hydroponic systems was provided using Light Emitting Diode(LED) for photoperiod 12 h and light intensity of LED was 128 μmol m-2·s-1 and the ratio of red and blue light source was set on 8 : 2(Ikeda et al., 1991). Nutrient solution(Daejung, Republic of Korea) was maintained at pH 6.0 and EC 2.2 dS/m and temperature was maintained at 12 °C during the experiment(Cha et al., 2012). Two treatments were thus as follows; one is without music(Control), and the other is with digital music as(Treatment).

    At the first experiment, the fresh weight and chlorophyll content of red leaf lettuce at harvest(6 weeks after planting) were investigated.

    However, as experimental variable, the temperature in hydroponic systems was compared as the warm air raised and the cold air descended in the upper and lower parts, respectively. Table 1 shows difference in temperature between upper and lower parts in hydroponic system. There was no significant difference in temperature at the upper part but there was significant difference at the lower part. Therefore, the comparison of data for the first experiment was also divided into two groups.

    At the second experiment, fresh weight and chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content at the different growth stages(4 weeks and 6 weeks after planting) were compared depending on the treatment and control as the condition of photoperiod 16 h and temperature 16°C.

    Table 2 shows the difference in temperature between the upper and lower parts for second experiment at different vegetation growth stages. The temperature condition in hydroponic systems between control and treatment in the upper part was the same, but there was significant difference in temperature between upper and lower parts. Therefore, the comparison of data for the second experiment was also divided into two groups as the same as the first experiment.

    2.Digital music

    “Green music”, which is composed of 8 tracks containing children's song and sound of nature developed by RDA was used to conduct the experiment. Frequency of the music was adjusted to average 2 kHz and 75 ± 5 dB considering size of the devices because sound pressure of 80 dB has an influence to on the front at 100 m. Compressed to mp3, the red leaf lettuce was repeatedly exposed to the digital music at the beginning of photoperiod for 2 h every day using 18 w speaker(NEWVIA RX-9, Republic of Korea) in one of the two devices.

    3.Chemical analysis

    3.1.Chlorophyll

    To determine chlorophyll content, in the first experiment, 5 leaf disks(1 cm2 in area) were extracted from lettuce samples, but in the second experiment all lettuce samples were used. These samples were dried in oven at constant level. After the samples were grinded with 25 mL acetone, were injected into tube and centrifuged with a centrifugal separator(Allegra 64R, Beckman Coulter, USA) for 5 minutes at 3,500 rpm. These samples were diluted with acetone and the absorbances of diluted samples were measured at 645 nm, 663 nm and 750 nm wavelengths with spectrophotometer(DU800, Beckman Coulter, USA). The blank used 99% acetone and E663 were diluted with 99% acetone when E663 value exceed 0.2-0.8. The absorbance were calculated as follow:

    A645 = A’645 – A’750
    (1)
    A663 = A’663 – A’750
    (2)

    If elementary particle is blended in extract, A750 have to be excluded because of non-selective absorption or light by scattering. Finally, chlorophyll content were calculated using the absorbances.

    Chl[mg/L] = 8.05 x A663 + 20.3 x A640
    (3)
    Chl[mg/g] = (Chl[mg/L]) / 20 / Fresh weight[g]
    (4)

    3.2.Ascorbic acid

    The samples(1 g) were grinded with 5 mL of 4 % metaphosphoric acid and then filtered through 0.45 μm syringe filter. The filtrated samples were Injected in HPLC(1200 series, Agilent, USA) equipped with a Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column(5 μm, 4.6 x 15 mm) placed in a column oven set at 30 °C. the extracts were diluted by mobile phase(0.05 M KH2PO4, pH 3.0) of 1.0 mL/min flow rate. The absorbance of the eluant was measured at 254 nm wavelength and ascorbic acid content was calculated.

    3.3.Anthocyanin

    The samples(0.5 g) were soaked by methanol containing 5 mL of 2% HCl in the dark place for 48 h at 4°C, After then the samples were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 minutes. The samples were diluted to 20 mL with different buffer solution(0.025 M pH1.0 potassium chloride buffer, 0.4 M pH 4.5 sodium acetate buffer) for 15 minutes. The absorbances were measured at 520 nm, 700 nm wavelength and were calculated as follow:

    A = (Aλ520 - Aλ700)pH 1.0 - (Aλ520 - Aλ700)pH 4.5
    (5)

    The monomeric anthocyanin content in original sample was calculated in cyadid-3, 5-diglucoside equivalent according to the following:

    Anthocyanin  content mg / L = A × MW × DF × 1000 ϵ × 1
    (6)

    Where MW is used as 611 because the anthocyanin content was calculated in cyadid-3, 5-diglucoside equivalent. The molar absorptivity ε is 30.175 and the DF is dilution factor to convert gram to milligram. The A is absorbance.

    4.Data analysis

    The data was analyzed to confirm the difference of significance(p<0.05) between treatment and control groups using R project(R version 3.0.3, Lucent Technologies Inc.). After testing normality of the data, F-test was conducted to compare variance between two groups and two samples T-test was conducted to find the difference of mean values.

    Results and discussion

    1.Effect of digital music on fresh weight and chlorophyll content of red leaf lettuce at final harvest

    Fresh weight and chlorophyll content of red leaf lettuce at harvest were shown in table 3. There were no significant differences on fresh weight and chlorophyll content between the control and treatment(Total part). However, the coefficient of variance of fresh weight in control and treatment was 47.51% and 41.46%, respectively. The reason of high CV value in the fresh weight might be influenced by the difference in temperature.

    Thus, the results based on the difference in temperature in table 3 needed to represent(Upper and lower parts), there were no significant differences in fresh weight and chlorophyll content between the control and treatment groups. However, the coefficient of variance in fresh weight for treatment group at the upper and lower parts were comparatively less than it of the control group. The reason of the samples for treatment group which were more homogeneous might be influenced by the digital music. And chlorophyll content in red leaf lettuce was homogeneous in all samples, as all conditions of environment were set up as possible as the same.

    2.Effect of digital music on fresh weight and chlorophyll content of red leaf lettuce at different growth stages

    Table 4 shows basic statistical analysis for fresh weight, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content of red leaf lettuces at different vegetation growth stages between with and without digital music based on the difference in temperature at the second experiment(Upper and lower parts).

    There were no significant differences in fresh weight depending on with and without digital music not only 4 weeks after planting but also 6 weeks after planting. However, fresh weight for 4 weeks after planting at the upper part in the treatment was more than it of the lower part in the control. Moreover, the fresh weight of 6 weeks after planting at the lower part in the treatment was less than it of the upper part in the control. It might be influenced by the difference in temperature between upper and lower parts(Joo et al., 2002). In the result of chlorophyll, there was apparent difference between the first and second experiments because of the difference in sampling method between the punching of leaves for the first experiment and all leaves sampling for the second experiment. There was no significant difference in chlorophyll at each of vegetation stages not only depending on the control and treatment but also the upper and lower parts in hydroponic system as the same as the result of first experiment.

    Regarding ascorbic acid content, there was significant difference between the control and treatment groups at the lower part at 4 weeks after planting. However, there was no significant difference at 6 weeks after planting. Ascorbic acid as inactive molecule is not easily influenced to physical response like music(Qin et al., 2003). Therefore, it was difficult to explain the influence of digital music. The anthocyanin of 4 weeks after planting in the lower part of the treatment was more than it at the upper part in the control. Anthocyanin content of red lettuces under control in lower part after 6 weeks of planting showed higher than the treatment group. There was a significant temperature difference between the control and treatment groups in the lower part of both hydroponic systems. The control group shows lower temperature than the treatment group even the two chambers exposed to the same temperature as 16°C and it might be the reason of increasing anthocyanin in the control group as anthocyanin is increased at the condition of low temperature(Boo et al., 2011).

    As a results, fresh weight and anthocyanin of the red leaf lettuces might be influenced by the difference of temperature. Thus, it is evident that there is necessity to be optimally adjusted to cultivation condition for fresh weight in plant by digital music(Lee et al., 1997). Chlorophyll of the red leaf lettuces are not easily influenced by digital music and difference of temperature. These results may be different according to time exposed to music. In another study, when chinese cabbage was each exposed to analog and digital music for 6 h(Kim, 2008) observed that growth of chinese cabbage in Kyungpook National University was highly influenced to all music. The alteration of growth condition and chemical properties in chinese cabbage by analog music better than digital. According to these results, the research will be needed further study to observe alteration of fresh weight and chemical properties in red leaf lettuce according to time exposed to digital music.

    Acknowledgement

    This Work was Supported by the Fund of Research Promotion Program, Gyeongsang National University, 2013(RPP-2013-005).

    Figure

    Table

    Difference in temperature between upper and lower parts in hydroponic system depending on with and without digital music at the first experiment

    P-value from two-sample T-test at p<0.05.

    Difference in temperature between upper and lower parts in hydroponic system depending on with and without digital music at the second experiment

    P-value from two-sample T-test at p<0.05.

    Basic statistical analysis for fresh weight and chlorophyll content of red leaf lettuces at final harvest between with and without digital music at the first experiment

    P-value from two-sample T-test at p<0.05.

    Basic statistical analysis for fresh weight, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and anthocyanin content of red leaf lettuces at different growth stages between with and without digital music at the second experiment

    P-value from two-sample T-test at p<0.05.

    Reference

    1. Boo HO , Heo BG , Gorinstein S , Chon SU (2011) Positive effect of temperature and growth conditions on enzymatic and antioxidant status in lettuce plants , Plant science, Vol.181 ; pp.479-484
    2. Cha MK , Kim JS , Cho YY (2012) Growth response of lettuce to various levels of EC and light intensity in plant factory , Journal of Bio-Environment Control, Vol.21 (4) ; pp.305-311
    3. Hassanien RHE , Hou T , Li Y , Li B (2014) Advances in effects of sound waves on plants , Journal of Integrative Agriculture, Vol.13 (2) ; pp.335-348
    4. Heo MG , Lee BR , Ha GJ (2012) Effects of Musics on Early Growth of Wild and Cultivated Soybean , Music study, Vol.49 (1) ; pp.81-99
    5. Ikeda A , Tanimura Y , Ezaki K , Kawai Y , Nakayama S , Iwao K , Kageyama H (1991) Environmental control and operation monitoring in a plant factory using artificial light , I International Workshop on Sensors in Horticulture, Vol.304 ; pp.151-158
    6. Joo MK , Lim JS (2002) Effect of light and temperature on yield, chlorophyll and anthocyanin content of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) , Kor. J. Intl. Agri, Vol.14 ; pp.105-112
    7. Kim HY (2008) Effect of analog and digital music on the growth and endogenous hormones (GA, ABA and JA) of Chinese cabbage , Master's degree thesis Kyungpook National University Buk-gu Daegu,
    8. Lee WC , Lee KY , Yun SJ , Lee DW , Bang SH (1997) Change of component content and promotion in plants growth by music , Journal of the Korean Society of Jungshin Science, Vol.1 (2) ; pp.31-36
    9. Lee KY , Hur TW , Lee WC , Yun SJ (2002) Analysis of plants response to music signals , J. Kor. Soc. Hort. sci, Vol.43 (1) ; pp.5-10
    10. Qin YC , Lee WC , Choi YC , Kim TW (2003) Biochemical and physiological changes in plants as a result of different sonic exposures , Ultrasonics, Vol.41 (5) ; pp.407-411
    오늘하루 팝업창 안보기 닫기